1. Say something about the chemical (other than that it was related to the
neurotransmitter dopamine) that was visualized when Swedish researchers
traced the nigro-striatal dopamine tract in the 1960s.
the dopamine was reacted with formaldehyde to create a fluorescent product
2. What is the vascular tissue that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid in
3. Between the corpus callosum and the fornix, on a midsagittal section
of the brain, looking into the lateral ventricle, give EITHER (1) the name,
OR (2) the function of the obvious structure you see.
caudate, smoothen motor movements
4. In the 1800's, Broca delineated a brain area critical for speech. How
did he do this?
after death, on autopsy, he saw brain damage in a patient with damage to
5. Why should you be quite certain of the diagnosis before administering
tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) or desmoteplase (derived from vampire
saliva) for stroke?
it could be a hemorrhage
6. In the knee-jerk reflex, what is the mechanism by which the flexor is
via an inhibitory interneuron
7. "There are no mitoses in adult mammalian CNS neurons." Then
what is the nucleus used for?
to orchestrate cell function through transription
8. A patient in the emergency room complained of a loss of vision, "It
was like mud splattered on my glasses then slid off." Imaging suggests
that (s)he did not have a stroke because there is no permanent damage. What
transient ischemic attack (or migraine)
9. A figure was shown to you where axons looked red because of labeling
of tau. Answer EITHER (1) Say something about the technique that allowed
you to see tau. (2) Say something about the function of tau. OR (3) In
what neurological disorder does tau accumulate?
1 antibody & confocal, 2 microtubular binding protein, 3 Alzheimer's
10. A specialized brain imaging technique allowed an alumnus of this course
to find, relative to normally-sighted subjects, people who were blind from
an early age were deficient in a tract that went (ANSWER EITHER) (1) from
where (2) to where?
thalamus to visual cortex
11. Why, in the transmission electron microscope, does myelin look so dark?
membranes bind osmium (and it is electron dense) and myelin has many layers
12. ANSWER EITHER (1) Using the official terminology give the name for ONE
direction of axonal transport. OR (2) Give the name of ONE microtubular
binding protein involved in this transport.
1 orthograde = anterograde or retrograde, 2 kinesin or dynein
13. In between the plasma in the cerebrospinal fluid is the astrocyte foot
process and (state one of the other structures that separate these two compartments).
endothelial cell and basememt membrane
14. A migrating neuron during development moves ANSWER ONE (1) along what
kind of glial cell? OR (2) from (which?) surface OR (3) to (which?) surface.
1 radial glia, 2 ventricular, 3 pial
15. "The voltage jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next past the
myelin that insulates the axon." This is the truth but not the whole
truth. What else enhances the excitability at the node of Ranvier?
sodium channels are more concentrated at the nodes than between
16. Capacitance would leak current through a membrane, but capacitance of
the many layers of membrane in myelin add reciprocally, decreasing total
capacitance. Say what the resistors in series in the many membrane layers
of myelin do to myelin's electrical properties.
resistors add so there is more total resistance
17. What is one of the most fundamental differences between Schwann cells
myelinate one vs several axons, also in PNS vs CNS
18. Polio has affected the patient's nerve to the gastrocnemius muscle.
What happens to this muscle because of the loss of the trophic effect of
it gets smaller
19. Say something about one possible cause, widely denied by scientists,
of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
aftermath of flu vaccination
20. Thimerosal. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why is (was) it used? (2) What does it
contain that could be harmful? OR (3) Although it is not believed by most
scientists, many people thought that it caused what "illness?"
1 preservative in vaccines, 2 mercury, 3 autism
21. Say something, anything, about why all the equipment in my electrophysiology
lab bypasses the ground in a three prong plug and has a ground that goes
to a ground tree.
get rid of noise as current flows througy a ground loop
22. The glass in a micropipette might distort or obliterate a fast signal
like an action potential. ANSWER EITHER (1) What do electrophysiologists
do about that? OR (2) Say something about why that signal would be distorted.
1 feed back a fast signal (fudge the signal), 2. capacitance makes a low-pass
high cutoff filter
23. A large enough square wave injection of current depolarizes the axon
to the threshold of the action potential. What do you call the voltage response
to an injection in the other direction across the membrane?
24. You are using Neher and Sachmann's patch clamp technique. The X-axis
of your record is time. What is on the Y-axis?
25. Why does a membrane have high resistance?
the hydrophobic fatty acids do not pass ions
26. Long ago, physiologists did not have the molecular biology tools that
allowed them to identify membrane entities. They referred to membrane "conductances,"
but now they can refer to (what?), the membrane entity related to conductance.
27. If you could wave a magic wand and stop the sodium pump instantly, the
membrane voltage would change by a few mV. Why?
because 3 sodiums are pumped per 2 potassiums (electrogenic pump)
28. You might want to inhibit the sodium pump a bit in the heart. ANSWER
EITHER (1) Why? OR (2) With what drug?
1 maintain calcium for contractility, 2 digitalis
29. ANSWER EITHER A specific appetite for [(1) what substance?] would occur
after an adrenalectomy because of the absence of [(2) what hormone?].
1 sodium, 2 aldosterone
30. Name one of the hormones that keeps blood calcium at the appropriate
vitamin D, parathormone, calcitonin
31. I belabored the space constant and the time constant for passive spread
of voltage along the axon. This relates to the fact that (what?) is the
stimulus to depolarize the axon to the threshold of an action potential.
the action potential
32. With reference to e to the minus power, what term is applied to the
shapes of the curves for (1) voltage as a function of distance from current
injection, and (2)voltage as a function of time?
33. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why OR (2) How did Hodgkin and Huxley space clamp
the axon in the voltage clamp experiments?
1 to use the whole axon to determine current flow, 2 the electrode ran the
length of the axon
34. "Sodium flows in during the action potential." Why then does
sodium flow out when voltage is clamped to +65 mV (inside relative to outside)?
the voltage is clamped beyond the sodium equilibrium potential
35. For the electric eel sodium channel and the Shaker potassium channel,
how does the molecule detect and respond to the gating voltage so that the
positivly charged (basic) arginines and lysines down one side of S4 rotate
with the voltage
36. Congenital stationary night blindness is caused bu a mutation affecting
what specific molecule?
a calcium-sodium channel in the rod outer segment plasmalemma.
37. For gap junctions, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the relative (or absolute)
conductance? (2) What is the distance between the cells, relative to the
distance outside the gap junction patch? OR (3) What is the word used for
the multimer of proteins (or for each molecule) that makes up the channel?
1 high 120 pS, 2 small 3.5 vs 20 nm, 3 connexon, connexin
38. How did Loewi show that a chemical from the vagus nerve slowed the heart?
transfer fluid from near the stimulated vagus terminal to another heart
39. The resting potential is -60 mV inside negative. Regarding the reversal
potential for the IPSP, ANSWER EITHER (1) About how many mV is it? OR (2)
What would happen to the membrane potential if clamped beyond the reversal
potential upon activation of a GABA synapse?
1 -70 mV, it would depolarize instead of hyperpolarizing
40. To establish that the vesicle is a quantum of synaptic transmission,
ANSWER EITHER (1) How did Katz alter the size of the end plate potential?
OR (2) State what is graphed on either the X or Y axis of his Nobel prize-winning
1 lowered the extracellular calcium, 2 number of EPPs as a function of EPP
41. Regarding synaptic vesicles, ANSWER EITHER (1) Why is there paralysis
when temperature sensitive Shibire mutant Drosophila are moved to the restrictive
temperature? OR (2) What protein is coded for by the Shibire mutant?
1 vesicle membrane fails to recycle, 2 dynamin
42. For synaptobrevin, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is it (which membrane, or
cytoplasm)? OR (2) What is another name of this protein? OR (2) What toxin
1 vesicle membrane, 2 VAMP=v-SNARE, 3 botulinum and tetanus (clostridial
43. For a deep, dirty puncture wound in the finger, ANSWER EITHER (1) Why
would you want to try to make it bleed? (2) What would you want to look
into when you hurry off to your family doctor?
1 "wash" the anaerobic bacterium out, 2 have you had your tetanus
booster in the last 10 yrs
44. For synaptic vesicle release, ANSWER EITHER (1) How did calcium ions
come to be in the neighborhood? OR (3) What protein does it bind to?
1 came in through a calcium channel, 2 synaptotagmin
45. Why did Neuroscience Alumni Moore and Li use PC (pheochromocytoma) cells
in their published papers?
a model system for catecholamine release
46. What is meant by the term "putative neurotransmitter?"
it is probablu a neurotransmitter but it is not proven to everyone's satisfaction
47. There are channel receptors and they are called ionotropic. There are
G protein-coupled receptors that are called (what?).
48. For norepinephrine, there are several steps in the synthesis, and the
production of norepinephrine feeds back to regulate synthesis. ANSWER EITHER
(1) To which enzyme is there feedback? OR (2) What is the general term for
such a step in a multistep synthesis?
1 tyrosine hydroxylase, 2 rate-limiting
49. POMC (proopiomelanocortin) ANSWER EITHER (1) is the precursor of what
modulator of pain? OR (2) How is this modulator derived from POMC?
1 beta endorphin, 2 precursor is chopped into smaller peptides
50. Reuptake is important in a cholinergic terminal. What is taken back
51. Why does it make sense that a monamine oxidase inhibitor could serve
as an antidepressant?
potentiats noradrenergic transmission
52. What part of the nervous system controls smooth muscle in arterioles?
53. Sometimes, neuroscientists use (what term?) to describe combined parasympathetic
and sympathetic influences on a plexus of nerves that controls peristalsis
in the gut.
enteric nervous system
54. "Unique" was the word to describe when only one component
of the autonomic nervous system innervated a target. SA and AV nodes are
innervated by both. To what effect do heart muscle cells receive unique
innervation from the sympathetic nervous system?
to increase contractility
55. Nitric oxide (NO) had previously been called "endothelial derived
relaxation factor." What was relaxed?
smooth muscle in arterioles of the corpus cavernosum
56. In the "postsynaptic" cell, NO (nitric oxide) ANSWER EITHER
(1) Affects what enzyme? OR (2) In order to make what "second messenger?"
1 guanylyl cyclase, 2 cGMP
57. 5-HT is spread throughout the brain from (what structure?).
58. How does Prozac affect neurotransmission in its use as a treatment for
potentiates serotonin action by inhibiting reuptake
59. The date rape drug is related to what neurotransmitter?
60. In the hope of what eventual treatment did Michael J. Fox come to Missouri
to campaign for Claire McCaskill?
stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease
61. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine are antipsychotics because they are antagonists
of what molecules?
62. "Tritiated naloxone binds to places in the brain and is displaced
by (what?) in parallel with their strength.
63. What (or where) is the precursor for the endogenous cannabinoids?
64. The nicotinic channel. ANSWER EITHER (1) is bound by a toxin called
(what?) OR (from what?) OR (2) was cloned from what organism? OR (3) needs
(how many components?) to form a channel.
1 alpha bungarotoxin fromm banded krait snake, 2 Torpedo, 3 five
65. What may alleviate the weakness of myasthenia gravis?
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Last updated 2/15/2013