1. Say something about the chemical (other than that it was related to the neurotransmitter dopamine) that was visualized when Swedish researchers traced the nigro-striatal dopamine tract in the 1960s.

the dopamine was reacted with formaldehyde to create a fluorescent product

2. What is the vascular tissue that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles?

choroid plexus

3. Between the corpus callosum and the fornix, on a midsagittal section of the brain, looking into the lateral ventricle, give EITHER (1) the name, OR (2) the function of the obvious structure you see.

caudate, smoothen motor movements

4. In the 1800's, Broca delineated a brain area critical for speech. How did he do this?

after death, on autopsy, he saw brain damage in a patient with damage to his speech

5. Why should you be quite certain of the diagnosis before administering tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) or desmoteplase (derived from vampire saliva) for stroke?

it could be a hemorrhage

6. In the knee-jerk reflex, what is the mechanism by which the flexor is inhibited?

via an inhibitory interneuron

7. "There are no mitoses in adult mammalian CNS neurons." Then what is the nucleus used for?

to orchestrate cell function through transription

8. A patient in the emergency room complained of a loss of vision, "It was like mud splattered on my glasses then slid off." Imaging suggests that (s)he did not have a stroke because there is no permanent damage. What was that?

transient ischemic attack (or migraine)

9. A figure was shown to you where axons looked red because of labeling of tau. Answer EITHER (1) Say something about the technique that allowed you to see tau. (2) Say something about the function of tau. OR (3) In what neurological disorder does tau accumulate?

1 antibody & confocal, 2 microtubular binding protein, 3 Alzheimer's

10. A specialized brain imaging technique allowed an alumnus of this course to find, relative to normally-sighted subjects, people who were blind from an early age were deficient in a tract that went (ANSWER EITHER) (1) from where (2) to where?

thalamus to visual cortex

11. Why, in the transmission electron microscope, does myelin look so dark?

membranes bind osmium (and it is electron dense) and myelin has many layers of membrane

12. ANSWER EITHER (1) Using the official terminology give the name for ONE direction of axonal transport. OR (2) Give the name of ONE microtubular binding protein involved in this transport.

1 orthograde = anterograde or retrograde, 2 kinesin or dynein

13. In between the plasma in the cerebrospinal fluid is the astrocyte foot process and (state one of the other structures that separate these two compartments).

endothelial cell and basememt membrane
 
14. A migrating neuron during development moves ANSWER ONE (1) along what kind of glial cell? OR (2) from (which?) surface OR (3) to (which?) surface.

1 radial glia, 2 ventricular, 3 pial
 
15. "The voltage jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next past the myelin that insulates the axon." This is the truth but not the whole truth. What else enhances the excitability at the node of Ranvier?
 
sodium channels are more concentrated at the nodes than between

16. Capacitance would leak current through a membrane, but capacitance of the many layers of membrane in myelin add reciprocally, decreasing total capacitance. Say what the resistors in series in the many membrane layers of myelin do to myelin's electrical properties.

resistors add so there is more total resistance
 
17. What is one of the most fundamental differences between Schwann cells and oligodendroglia?

myelinate one vs several axons, also in PNS vs CNS

18. Polio has affected the patient's nerve to the gastrocnemius muscle. What happens to this muscle because of the loss of the trophic effect of the muscle?

it gets smaller

19. Say something about one possible cause, widely denied by scientists, of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

aftermath of flu vaccination

20. Thimerosal. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why is (was) it used? (2) What does it contain that could be harmful? OR (3) Although it is not believed by most scientists, many people thought that it caused what "illness?"

1 preservative in vaccines, 2 mercury, 3 autism

21. Say something, anything, about why all the equipment in my electrophysiology lab bypasses the ground in a three prong plug and has a ground that goes to a ground tree.

get rid of noise as current flows througy a ground loop

22. The glass in a micropipette might distort or obliterate a fast signal like an action potential. ANSWER EITHER (1) What do electrophysiologists do about that? OR (2) Say something about why that signal would be distorted.

1 feed back a fast signal (fudge the signal), 2. capacitance makes a low-pass high cutoff filter

23. A large enough square wave injection of current depolarizes the axon to the threshold of the action potential. What do you call the voltage response to an injection in the other direction across the membrane?

hyperpolarization

24. You are using Neher and Sachmann's patch clamp technique. The X-axis of your record is time. What is on the Y-axis?

current

25. Why does a membrane have high resistance?

the hydrophobic fatty acids do not pass ions

26. Long ago, physiologists did not have the molecular biology tools that allowed them to identify membrane entities. They referred to membrane "conductances," but now they can refer to (what?), the membrane entity related to conductance.

channels

27. If you could wave a magic wand and stop the sodium pump instantly, the membrane voltage would change by a few mV. Why?

because 3 sodiums are pumped per 2 potassiums (electrogenic pump)

28. You might want to inhibit the sodium pump a bit in the heart. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why? OR (2) With what drug?

1 maintain calcium for contractility, 2 digitalis

29. ANSWER EITHER A specific appetite for [(1) what substance?] would occur after an adrenalectomy because of the absence of [(2) what hormone?].

1 sodium, 2 aldosterone

30. Name one of the hormones that keeps blood calcium at the appropriate level.

vitamin D, parathormone, calcitonin

31. I belabored the space constant and the time constant for passive spread of voltage along the axon. This relates to the fact that (what?) is the stimulus to depolarize the axon to the threshold of an action potential.

the action potential

32. With reference to e to the minus power, what term is applied to the shapes of the curves for (1) voltage as a function of distance from current injection, and (2)voltage as a function of time?

exponential

33. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why OR (2) How did Hodgkin and Huxley space clamp the axon in the voltage clamp experiments?

1 to use the whole axon to determine current flow, 2 the electrode ran the length of the axon

34. "Sodium flows in during the action potential." Why then does sodium flow out when voltage is clamped to +65 mV (inside relative to outside)?

the voltage is clamped beyond the sodium equilibrium potential

35. For the electric eel sodium channel and the Shaker potassium channel, how does the molecule detect and respond to the gating voltage so that the channel activates?

positivly charged (basic) arginines and lysines down one side of S4 rotate with the voltage

36. Congenital stationary night blindness is caused bu a mutation affecting what specific molecule?

a calcium-sodium channel in the rod outer segment plasmalemma.

37. For gap junctions, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the relative (or absolute) conductance? (2) What is the distance between the cells, relative to the distance outside the gap junction patch? OR (3) What is the word used for the multimer of proteins (or for each molecule) that makes up the channel?

1 high 120 pS, 2 small 3.5 vs 20 nm, 3 connexon, connexin

38. How did Loewi show that a chemical from the vagus nerve slowed the heart?

transfer fluid from near the stimulated vagus terminal to another heart

39. The resting potential is -60 mV inside negative. Regarding the reversal potential for the IPSP, ANSWER EITHER (1) About how many mV is it? OR (2) What would happen to the membrane potential if clamped beyond the reversal potential upon activation of a GABA synapse?

1 -70 mV, it would depolarize instead of hyperpolarizing

40. To establish that the vesicle is a quantum of synaptic transmission, ANSWER EITHER (1) How did Katz alter the size of the end plate potential? OR (2) State what is graphed on either the X or Y axis of his Nobel prize-winning result.

1 lowered the extracellular calcium, 2 number of EPPs as a function of EPP amplitude

41. Regarding synaptic vesicles, ANSWER EITHER (1) Why is there paralysis when temperature sensitive Shibire mutant Drosophila are moved to the restrictive temperature? OR (2) What protein is coded for by the Shibire mutant?

1 vesicle membrane fails to recycle, 2 dynamin

42. For synaptobrevin, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is it (which membrane, or cytoplasm)? OR (2) What is another name of this protein? OR (2) What toxin cleaves it?

1 vesicle membrane, 2 VAMP=v-SNARE, 3 botulinum and tetanus (clostridial proteases)

43. For a deep, dirty puncture wound in the finger, ANSWER EITHER (1) Why would you want to try to make it bleed? (2) What would you want to look into when you hurry off to your family doctor?

1 "wash" the anaerobic bacterium out, 2 have you had your tetanus booster in the last 10 yrs

44. For synaptic vesicle release, ANSWER EITHER (1) How did calcium ions come to be in the neighborhood? OR (3) What protein does it bind to?

1 came in through a calcium channel, 2 synaptotagmin

45. Why did Neuroscience Alumni Moore and Li use PC (pheochromocytoma) cells in their published papers?

a model system for catecholamine release

46. What is meant by the term "putative neurotransmitter?"

it is probablu a neurotransmitter but it is not proven to everyone's satisfaction

47. There are channel receptors and they are called ionotropic. There are G protein-coupled receptors that are called (what?).

metabotropic

48. For norepinephrine, there are several steps in the synthesis, and the production of norepinephrine feeds back to regulate synthesis. ANSWER EITHER (1) To which enzyme is there feedback? OR (2) What is the general term for such a step in a multistep synthesis?

1 tyrosine hydroxylase, 2 rate-limiting

49. POMC (proopiomelanocortin) ANSWER EITHER (1) is the precursor of what modulator of pain? OR (2) How is this modulator derived from POMC?

1 beta endorphin, 2 precursor is chopped into smaller peptides

50. Reuptake is important in a cholinergic terminal. What is taken back up?

choline

51. Why does it make sense that a monamine oxidase inhibitor could serve as an antidepressant?

potentiats noradrenergic transmission

52. What part of the nervous system controls smooth muscle in arterioles?

sympathetic

53. Sometimes, neuroscientists use (what term?) to describe combined parasympathetic and sympathetic influences on a plexus of nerves that controls peristalsis in the gut.

enteric nervous system

54. "Unique" was the word to describe when only one component of the autonomic nervous system innervated a target. SA and AV nodes are innervated by both. To what effect do heart muscle cells receive unique innervation from the sympathetic nervous system?

to increase contractility

55. Nitric oxide (NO) had previously been called "endothelial derived relaxation factor." What was relaxed?

smooth muscle in arterioles of the corpus cavernosum

56. In the "postsynaptic" cell, NO (nitric oxide) ANSWER EITHER (1) Affects what enzyme? OR (2) In order to make what "second messenger?"

1 guanylyl cyclase, 2 cGMP

57. 5-HT is spread throughout the brain from (what structure?).

Raphe nucleus

58. How does Prozac affect neurotransmission in its use as a treatment for depression?

potentiates serotonin action by inhibiting reuptake

59. The date rape drug is related to what neurotransmitter?

GABA

60. In the hope of what eventual treatment did Michael J. Fox come to Missouri to campaign for Claire McCaskill?

stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease

61. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine are antipsychotics because they are antagonists of what molecules?

dopamine receptors

62. "Tritiated naloxone binds to places in the brain and is displaced by (what?) in parallel with their strength.

opiates

63. What (or where) is the precursor for the endogenous cannabinoids?

membrane phospholipid

64. The nicotinic channel. ANSWER EITHER (1) is bound by a toxin called (what?) OR (from what?) OR (2) was cloned from what organism? OR (3) needs (how many components?) to form a channel.

1 alpha bungarotoxin fromm banded krait snake, 2 Torpedo, 3 five

65. What may alleviate the weakness of myasthenia gravis?

neostigmine

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Last updated 2/15/2013