1. Where is the cell body of the muscle stretch receptor in the knee-jerk
just outside the spinal cord in the dorsal root ganglion
2. "The basal ganglia are important in motor coordination. Note that
basal 'ganglia' is a misnomer." Why is it a misnomer?
because groups of cells in the CNS are officially called "nuclei"
3. What should you ascertain before giving a clot busting blood thinner
to reverse a stroke?
that is not a hemorrhage
4. Say something about how the Golgi technique permitted the viewing of
the magnificence of a Purkinjee cell in all its glory.
it stains the whole cell a dark color and only stains one out of a zillion
5. Say something about the technique used to show that dopamine was in the
tract from the substantia nigra to the striatum.
the dopamine was converted to a fluorescent product by exposure of microscope
sections to formaldehyde vapor then the slide was viewed in a fluorescence
microscope (histochemical fluorescence)
6. My hypothesis is that actin is present in the growing tips of developing
axons. I did what the methods handbook suggested, purchasing an antibody
produced in goat that is labeled with fluorescein. What other reagent do
a primary antibody against actin produced in mouse to which that secondary
antibody can bind
7. Neuroscience class alumnus did some imaging work at Washington University
to show that people who were blind from an early age had diminished tracts
ANSWER EITHER (1) from where OR (2) to where?
thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus), visual cortex (area 17)
8. Say something about the protuberances on dendrites where postsynaptic
receptors are located.
protuberances are called spines, they have tubulin and actin, they have
9. Name one of the proteins involved in axon transport.
kinesin, dynein, microtubular protein
10. Radioactive protein was moved from ganglion cells to where?
thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus)
11. Why do myelinated axons propagate faster?
the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next rather than
fizzling the whole way along the axon
12. Why is the prefix "oligo" at the beginning of oligodendrocytes?
they myelinate a few axons
13. Why is myelin such a good insulator?
the many membrane layers add resistors and the capacitance adds reciprocally
14. The reason I thought my neuroscience class would be interested in Charcot
Marie Tooth (CMT) disease was that I had just talked about polio. Why did
our subject JH show us his legs?
like for polio, the loss of motor nerve function led to a deterioration
15. JH, our CMT subject, had deformed feet since his youth. Why, then, would
he rub cream on his feet daily and see a podiatrist every 3 months?
with the neuropathy, sensory loss, he could have a bad wound like the kind
that lead to so many amputations from diabetic neuropathy
16. What does the current flow through in Nobelists Neher and Sackman's
patch clamp technique?
a single channel
17. "There is a delay in the membrane's voltage response to a sudden
step stimulation of current." This is because of what property of the
it has capacitance
18. "A line describes Ohm's law when it is graphed with current on
the Y axis and voltage on the X axis." What is the slope of the line?
19. Why would there be an immediate small (1.5 mV) change in the resting
potential when ouabain is applied to the axon?
because 3 sodiums are exchanged for two potassiums, the sodium pump is electrogenic
20. ANSWER EITHER (1) Which side of the membrane is the sodium pump's phosphorylation
site? OR (2) Where did that phosphate come from?
21. Why would a physician prescribe a sodium pump blocker to a patient?
alters the sodium calcium exchanger in myocardial cells resulting in more
22. What is assumed in the derivation of the Nernst equation?
the energies of the two compartments are equal, alternatively that the chemical
potential is equal and opposite to the voltage
23. What was the "unknown resistor" in Cole and Curtis's Wheatstone
the axon membrane
24. Say something about the hormone that makes salt deprived people crave
aldosterone is from the adrenal cortex, affects sodium retention in the
kidney, and there are neurons that are responsive to aldosterone in the
taste area of the brain
25. "Hodgkin and Huxley changed the axon voltage then pumped and monitored
current to keep that voltage the same." What did they find out by doing
the voltage clamp experiments ultimately showed that sodium channels activated
then inactivated and then potassium channels activated, and the answer could
be that or any statement of conclusions leading to that ultimate conclusion
26. Under what voltage clamp conditions would there be no early component
of current in the I-t curves?
when voltage was clamped at the sodium equilibrium (Nernst) potential (the
peak of the action potential), also when there was no extracellular sodium
27. "The action potential depolarizes the axon ahead of it to threshold
and thus generates an action potential ahead of it." Why doesn't it
generate an action potential behind it?
there is a refractory period because the sodium channels are inactivated
28. How was the channel that is mutant in long Q-T syndrome first found
as a conditional mutant?
the human ether-a-go-go gene is a homologue of a gene mutated in Drosophila
that shake under ether anesthesia
29. "The sodium channel for the action potential is voltage gated."
Mechanistically, how does the molecule detect voltage in order to open?
because of the charged (basic) arginines and lysines down one side of the
S4 alpha helix, it rotates when the depolarizing voltage arrives
40. CSNB (congenital stationary night blindness): ANSWER EITHER (1) What
cells do not work? OR (2) Why is it called "stationary?"
rods, it is not progressive (degeneration) rather blind from birth
41. "The strength of connexin36 synapses is modified by metabotropic
glutamate receptors from the neocortex." Elaborate. EITHER (1) Connexin
36 OR (2) Metabotropic.
the particular gap junction protein studied, g protein coupled receptor
42. Why did Sherrington call the spinal motor neuron "the final common
pathway of the integrative action of the nervous system?"
at that location, there is integration (of EPSPs and IPSPs) while at the
neuromuscular junction, there are only EPPs
43. The resting potential of the postsynaptic neuron is -60 mV. Approximately,
what is the value for the reversal potential when a presynaptic GABAergic
nerve is stimulated?
44. In vesicle membrane recycling, a coated pit is budded off to a coated
vesicle. ANSWER EITHER (1) What protein is necessary? OR (2) This protein
is the product of what gene in Drosophila which, if mutated, leads to temperature
45. "Calcium ions are important in synaptic vesicle release."
ANSWER EITHER (1) How did calcium concentration increase in the presynaptic
cytoplasm? OR (2) What is the name AND location of the protein that binds
came in through Q or N type voltage gated calcium channels, synaptotagmin
on the vesicle
46. Why do you need to really cook the tomatoes and the mason jars?
to kill the endospores of the bacterium that makes botulinum toxin because
the bacteria would grow in anaerobic conditions
47. On the vesicle membrane, and also on the presynaptic membrane, there
are receptors for "soluable (N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor) associated
protein" during fusion of the vesicle with the membrane. Give a short
acronym for that pile of words.
48. What does the gamma in gamma amino butyric acid signify?
instead of having the amine on the alpha carbon where the acid group is,
it is on the third carbon
49. What famous protein is the precursor of ACTH, beta-lipotropin, gamma-lipotropin,
50. Why would a muscarinic antagonist save your life if you were poisoned
with the insecticide malathion?
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor would stop the heart from too much acetylcholine,
so blocking the receptor with atropine would save you
51. Why is it relevant that the substantia nigra is pale in Parkinson's
l-DOPA is a common precursor of melanin and dopamine
52. Rationalize why MAO inhibitors would serve as antidepressants.
norepinephrine is an "upper" and preventing its breakdown would
potentiate its action
53.What type of neurotransmitter receptor is used at sympathetic and parasympathetic
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ionotropic, ligand-gated channels
54. What is the mechanism of action of Viagra?
it inhibits the cGMP PDE
55. What is the mechanism of action of the antidepressant Prozac?
it is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
56. What transmitter is the precursor of melatonin?
57. What is the fate of glutamate removed from the synaptic cleft by glial
it is converted to glutamine which, in turn, is sent back to the nerve terminal
for glutamate synthesis
58. Why, when giving l-DOPA therapy, would you also administer an aromatic
amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor also?
because DOPA decarboxylase is all over the place, and not much l-DOPA would
cross the blood brain barrier to be converted to dopamine to help Parkinson's
59. "The lateral hypothalamus must be a hunger center since lesioning
it makes the rat lose weight." What is a more modern explanation?
there is a generalized loss of motivation (affect) since the nigro-striatal
dopamine tract in the median forebrain bundle which is lesioned
60. Say something about the precursor(s) of the transmitter(s) that affect
the cannabis receptor.
phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol are membrane phospholipids
61. Why would a physician prescribe neostigmine?
to make up for the low acetylcholine in patients with myasthenia gravis
63. What transmitter receptor binds the tranquillizers Valium and Librium
and also the hypnotics Barbiturates?
64. Why would a drug derived from the deadly nighthsade be used as a cosmetic?
atropine dilates the pupils and makes for a beautiful woman (belladonna)
65. There are two prodicts of the enzyme PLC (phospholipase C). ANSWER FOR
EITHER PRODUCT What is next step in the cascade after tie product?
ip3 affects its receptor, a calciou channel in the er, dag activates pkc
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This page was last updated 2/16/2015