1. In the 1800's, Broca delineated a brain area critical for speech. How
did he do this?
after death, on autopsy, he saw brain damage in a patient with damage to
2. In the knee-jerk reflex, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is the cell body of
the motor neuron? or (2) Where is the cell body of the sensory neuron?
ventral horn in gray matter of spinal cord, in dorsal root ganglion PNS
3. "The basal ganglia are important in motor coordination. Note that
basal 'ganglia' is a misnomer." Why is it a misnomer?
because groups of cells in the CNS are officially called "nuclei"
4. If a thrombus occluded one internal carotid artery, the brain damage
might not be immediately devastating because of what anatomical specialization
circle of Willis
5. In explaining fluorescence, why is the emission a longer wavelength than
energy is lost before a photon is re-emitted
6. A figure was shown to you where axons looked red because of labeling
of tau. ANSWER EITHER (1) Say something about the technique that allowed
you to see tau. (2) Say something about the function of tau. OR (3) In what
neurological disorder does tau accumulate?
antibody & confocal, microtubular binding protein, Alzheimer's
7. A specialized brain scan technique shows a defect in a pathway in blind
subjects. What lobe does this tract go to?
8. Why do myelinated axons propagate faster?
the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next rather than
fizzling the whole way along the axon
9. Something more than the endothelial cell is proposed to be responsible
for the blood-brain-barrier that makes the cerebro-spinal-fluid a privileged
compartment. What is the additional cell type?
astrocyte (glial cells)
10. Why, in the transmission electron microscope, does myelin look so dark?
membranes bind osmium (and it is electron dense) and myelin has many layers
11. The concept of the motor unit, all the muscle cells innervated by one
spinal motor neuron, was introduced. How is that muscle unit related to
Halstead's proposal on how he had some recovery after polio then the symptoms
recurred later in life?
new muscle cells were recruited to units innervated by surviving neurons,
but, by middle age, these new sprouts are lost
12. "Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease." ANSWER EITHER
(1) To what protein? OR (2) How can you get immune to a protein that belongs
in your body?
myelin basic protein, its sequestration from immune surveillance has been
13. When Jim (JH), our subject with CMT (the peripheral neuropathy) showed
us how small his calves are, he made an analogy to what demyelinating disease?
14. Why does Jim see his podiatrist regularly and rub cream on his feet
he might get a sore, and he might not feel it, and it might get infected
15. "Thimerosal was removed from childhood vaccines in 1999."
ANSWER EITHER (1) What is thimerosal? OR (2) This argues against thimerosal
being a cause of (what disorder?).
a mercury-containing preservative, autism
16. When a square wave of current is injected into the cell, the Voltage
change is gradual because of (what property of the membrane?).
17. A large enough square wave injection of current depolarizes the axon
to the threshold of the action potential. What do you call the voltage response
to an injection in the other direction across the membrane?
18. You are using Neher and Sachmann's patch clamp technique. The X-axis
of your record is time. What is on the Y-axis?
19. Ouabain is applied to the cell. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does the membrane
potential change by a few mV? OR (2) Why doesn't the membrane potential
go away right away?
3 sodiums to 2 potassiums make the pump electrogenic, otherwise potentials
are based on huge reservoirs of ion gradients that would run down very slowly
if the pump were blocked
20. "A line describes Ohm's law when it is graphed with current on
the Y axis and voltage on the X axis." What is the slope of the line?
21. Why is the Voltage calculated by the Nernst equation referred to as
the equilibrium potential?
equilibrium was assumed in the derivation of the Nernst equation
22. In the Goldman equation, concentrations (in and out) of sodium, potassium
and chloride, and permeabilities for all three ions, are shown. There is
an equivalent circuit (with electrical components) for the Goldman equation.
What is used in the circuit model for the sodium permeability? Be thorough
enough in your answer to address what happens to sodium permeability during
the action potential.
a variable resistor (potentiometer) that lets sodium permeability go up
23. "Cole and Curtis's bridge went out of balance." What did we
learn from their 1939 work on the squid giant axon with the Wheatstone bridge?
conductance goes up as the action potential passes
24. You remove both adrenal glands of a rat and let it recover. ANSWER EITHER
(1) What is different about the animal's specific appetite? OR (2) This
is explained by the absence of what hormone?
craves salt (NaCl) b/c of loss of aldosterone
25. Discussing passive spread of a decremental potential, the current spreading
down the axoplasm gets smaller with distance from a place where a stimulus
is applied. What happened to the current that was no longer going down the
it leaked through the axon membrane's resistance and capacitance
26. The lecture and figures refer to a sodium channel that is about to be
depolarized to threshold by an upstream action potential as "closed."
Right after the action potential has passed, what term do we use to describe
the status of the sodium channel?
27. What happened to the early current in Hodgkin and Huxley's "I-V
curve" when they replaced 460 mM NaCl with choline chloride.
the inward current was abolished
28. Why was Electrophorus electricus useful in channel research?
sodium channels were so plentiful in the electric organ that they could
be isolated and characterized
29. At one time they thought that the positively charged amino acids in
S4 lined the channel, but eventually they agreed that S4 did (what?)?
sensed the voltage for gating to cause a conformational change for activation
30. Parathormone, calcitonin, and (what other hormone?) help to maintain
appropriate levels of blood Ca2+?
31. Why would pheochromocytoma (PC) cells be a reasonable model for studying
can culture adrenal medulla cancer cells which release catecholamines
32. For gap junctions, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the relative (or absolute)
conductance? (2) What is the distance between the cells, relative to the
distance outside the gap junction patch? OR (3) What is the word used for
the multimer of proteins (or for each molecule) that makes up the channel?
high 120 pS, small 3.5 vs 20 nm, connexon, connexin
33. "There are no inhibitory neuromuscular junctions in the vertebrate."
What does that information tell us about "the final common pathway
in the integrative action of the nervous system?"
it must be in the spinal motor neuron since there is no integration after
34. The resting potential of the postsynaptic neuron is -60 mV. Approximately,
what is the value for the reversal potential when a presynaptic GABAergic
nerve is stimulated?
35. In Sir Bernard Katz's Nobel Prize-winning research, he turned end plate
potentials into 0, 1, 2, or 3 miniature end plate potentials. ANSWER EITHER
(1) How? OR (2) Why?
by decreasing calcium ions, to show that vesicles were the unit of synaptic
36. Describe either the freeze-fracture or the transmission electron microscope
image of a vesicle in the process of release.
holes (pits), omega figures
37. Why would there be transporter molecules in the vesicle membrane?
to concentrate the neurotransmitter
38. "Calcium ions are important in synaptic vesicle release."
ANSWER EITHER (1) How did calcium concentration increase in the presynaptic
cytoplasm? OR (2) What is the name AND location of the protein that binds
came in through Q or N type voltage gated calcium channels, synaptotagmin
on the vesicle
39. The shibire mutant of Drosophila ANSWER EITHER (1) What protein is altered?
(2) Why was it a temperature sensitive mutant that was studied? (3) What
is the behavioral phenotype? OR (4) What cellular process is altered?
dynamin, paralysis would be lethal, paralysis, conversion of coated pit
to coated vesicle
40. For a deep, dirty puncture wound in the finger, ANSWER EITHER (1) Why
would you want to try to make it bleed? (2) What would you want to look
into when you hurry off to your family doctor?
"wash" the anaerobic bacterium out, have you had your tetanus
booster in the last 10 yrs
41. What is meant by the term "putative neurotransmitter?"
it is probably a neurotransmitter but it is not proven to everyone's satisfaction
42. "Vasoactive intestinal peptide might be found in the brain."
What the heck?
even though it might have nervous system function, it retains the name based
on its original characterization
43. What famous protein is the precursor of ACTH, beta-lipotropin, gamma-lipotropin,
44. There are channel receptors and they are called ionotropic. There are
G protein-coupled receptors that are called (what?).
45. Blocking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor on the heart with atropine
would save your life if you were poisoned with what class of molecules?
46. Why is it relevant that the substantia nigra is pale in Parkinson's
l-DOPA is a common precursor of melanin and dopamine
47. One portion is called cranio-sacral. What is the equivalent name for
the other portion (of the autonomic nervous system)?
48. How is a norepinephrine breakdown enzyme an important target in the
pharmacology of treatment for depression?
norepinephrine is obviously an "upper", so potentiating its action
by inhibiting its breakdown would certainly be uplifting
49. Nitric oxide (NO) had previously been called "endothelial derived
relaxation factor." What was relaxed?
smooth muscle in arterioles of the corpus cavernosum
50. "Now that there are antidepressants, there is no reason to be depressed."
Then why is there so much controversy about drugs like Prozac (and Paxil
some critics implicate them in increased risk of suicide or homicide
51. Give one of the two possible reasons a diet high in tryptophan might
make you sleepy.
precursor to serotonin and to melatonin
52. What is the fate of glutamate removed from the synaptic cleft by glial
it is converted to glutamine which, in turn, is sent back to the nerve terminal
for glutamate synthesis
53. What would happen to most of the l-DOPA given to a Parkinson's patient?
it would get decarboxylated before it crossed the blood brain barrier
54. "The lateral hypothalamus must be a hunger center since lesioning
it makes the rat lose weight." What is a more modern explanation?
there is a generalized loss of motivation (affect) since the nigro-striatal
dopamine tract in the median forebrain bundle which is lesioned
55. Receptor antagonists for what transmitter are considered to be the most
effective treatment of schizophrenia?
"Tritiated naloxone binds to places in the brain and is displaced by
(what?) in parallel with their strength."
56. Pick EITHER phosphatidylethanolamine OR phosphatidylinositol and relate
it to marajuana.
both phospholipids are precursors of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamine
or 2-AG respectively
57. What is in the tail of Torpedo that made it useful for cloners interested
in the nervous system?
lots of tissue with acetylcholine receptors
58. What is in the tail of Torpedo that made it useful for cloners interested
in the nervous system?
lots of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
59. What may alleviate the weakness of myasthenia gravis?
60. Why do you need to be very careful when you use muscle relaxation in
conjunction with anesthesia?
while it is important for your patient or your research animal not to move,
you must not paralyse without blocking pain
61. There are not any channel receptors for (name ONE transmitter).
62. What receptor binds barbiturates? State what the natural transmitter
is and whether it is ionotropic or metabotropic.
a GABA channel
63. ANSWER EITHER (1) The second and third cytoplasmic loops (and what terminal?)
of the beta adrenergic receptor interact with the next downstream molecule
in this cascade. OR (2)What is the next downstream molecule in this cascade?
c terminal, g protein
64. Why would a drug derived from the deadly nighthsade be used as a cosmetic?
atropine dilates the pupils and makes for a beautiful woman (belladonna)
65. Why is caffeine an "upper?"
norepinephrine and epinephrine action is potentiated since the second messenger's
breakdown by cAMP phosphodiesterase is inhibited
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