Put your name on the back of the booklet
BIOL-415 Nerve cell mechanisms in behavior
BIOL-615 Neural bases of behavior
Second test - Thursday, April 3, 2008 - Prof. Stark
All questions are short answer. 65 points total.
For questions 1-5, refer here
1. The dissection reveals the brachium pontis, the brachium conjunctivum
and Answer either (1) the third part. Or (2) the whole structure (all three
restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle), cerebellar peduncle
2. Rostral to the above, in the midbrain, is the lamina quadrigemina. Answer
either (1) the function of the inferior pair. Or (2) the function of the
auditory center, visual center
3. Answer either (1) name or number of this nerve. Or (2) a specific function
other than somatic motor control.
occulomotor (III), autonomic (pupil and accomodation)
4. What is the artery that feeds the circle of Willis?
5. Answer either (1) What is the function of the axons you see here? Or
(2) What is the name given to the structure delineated here?
(pyramidal) motor system (corticospinal tract), trapezoid body
For questions 6-11, refer here
6. If you could see through the optic chiasm, what diencephalic structure
would you be seeing?
hypothalamus (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
7. Tracts branching from what huge white matter structure give rise to this
8. "Periaqueductal gray" where the aqueduct connects what two
3rd and 4th
9. Here's a place you've heard of. (hint, the site of action of N-acetyltransferase
and hydroxy indole O-methyl transferase)
10. Looks like we missed "mid" in this midsagittal cut by a bit.
What nucleus would we see in the lateral ventricle on the other side?
11. What is this white matter?
For questions 12-15, refer here
12. What is this white matter?
internal capsule (corona radiata)
13. You had a difficult time peeling off this tough layer called (what?).
14. In addition to the fornix, what white matter from the fimbria is found
in this area?
15. If we tear through this (what is this?), we will see (answer to #10).
16. You have a rat in a stereotactic instrument. How do you decide where
to drill the hole through the skull to reach a specific location?
a stereotactic atlas tells you the location relative to (XY) bone suture
(lamda and bregma) and depth (Z)
17. With a stereotactic instrument, you aim for the medial nucleus of the
hypothalamus and make a lesion (and collect data on the animal's weight
for a few months). How can you know whether you hit your intended target?
You must do histology on the brain to see if the lesion is near the intended
target (as identified in the atlas)
18. Part of the human retina projects to the contralateral lateral geniculate
nucleus. The other part projects to the (what?) lateral geniculate nucleus.
19. You can contract Creutzfeld Jacob disease by eating contaminated tissue.
Why is the current hypothesis explaining the spread of such diseases so
contradogmatic with respect to infectious diseases?
no nucleic acids are involved, only protein, and even here, it is conformation
that is critical
20. Using a term such as "myelencephalon," where is the frog's
21. There are sensory and motor functions for the cranial nerves. In addition
to striated muscle control, what other kind of motor control do the cranial
22. "The thalamus is a major relay station" [yes, I know that
is an oversimplification] "for the motor system and for (what?)."
sensory systems as they project to the cortex
23. Why is the medial forbrain bundle called bundle instead of tract?
It is a collection of different tracts with different functions traversing
24. "When you dip your face in water, parasympathetic and sympathetic
changes mediate the diving response" caused by sensory input from what
25. "The fimbria forms the fornix" and also it makes (what big
gray area?) look white.
26. Answer one of these: (1) Why would you need to use a different method
of lesioning to study the behavioral effects of lesions of the hippocampus
(compared with, say, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus). Or (2)
how would you do such lesioning?
(1) it is huge, (2) use suction (or a lot of electrolytic lesions
27. What, specifically, takes up more space in the cervical and lumbar enlargements?
28. What is the function of the choroid plexus?
secrete cerebrospinal fluid
29. The brainstem is considered to be the midbrain, the medulla, and (what?)
30. The more conventional name for the archipallium.
31. How does a famous "second messenger" activate protein kinase
4 cAMPs bind 2 inhibitory subunits and pull them off of 2 catalytic subunits
32. With the assistance of CREB (cAMP response element binding protein),
Answer either (1) what enzyme acts on (2) what macromolecule to medeiate
RNA polymerase acts on DNA
33. For what specific aspect of mechanosensation would the rapid adaptation
of Meissner's corpuscles be useful?
active (feeling) touch (of a textured surface)
34. Answer either (1) gamma motor neurons innervate what specific type of
cell? Or (2) what is the function of this activation?
intrafusal muscle fibers, preset the stretch of the stretch receptor
35. Capsaicin activates a channel that normally functions to detect (what?).
36. "First pain" and "second pain." What is the axonal
A delta (small, myelinated) vs C (small, unmyelinated
37. What is the function of the cell that is stimulated by bradykinin?
38. The head of a neurosurgery patient is opened to expose the brain using
only local anesthetic. Answer either: (1) How do they get away with that?
Or (2) Why would they do it that way?
no pain receptors in the brain, to make certain they are not messing with
a really critical function
39. There is a cell body in the dorsal root ganglion for touch (not pain)
input. Where are the "beginning" and also the synaptic terminals
of this cell?
beginning - the receptor itself, end - dorsal column (cuneate and gracile)
40. In what way are the functions of the cuneate and gracile nuclei different?
cuneate upper body, gracile lower body
41. Before it reaches the thalamus, but after it enters the central nervous
system, in what way does pain and temperature information from the face
differ in its pathway from mechanosensory informationfrom the face?
Strangely, for pain, the pathway first descends (from the pons to the medulla)
42. The mean two-point discrimination threshold for the fingers is less
than 5 for the fingers and more than 45 for the calf. Units?
43. The VPL of the thalamus connects to the somatosensory cortex. What does
VPL stand for?
ventral posterior lateral
44. The Raphe nucleus and the reticular formation feed to a cell in the
dorsal horn in the gray matter of the spinal cord for what purpose?
to modulate pain where it inputs
45. The conjugated double bond system of 11-cis retinal loosens up and the
chromophore relaxes to the all-trans configuration. What causes that loosening?
excitation by light
46. Zonule fibers ("ligaments") answer either: (1) connect the
lens to (what?), or (2) to mediate (what?).
ciliary muscle, accomodation
47. Say something about vision in either (1) the ultraviolet; or (2) the
UV - insects have, people usually do not b/c lens absorbs UV; IR - snakes
have pit "eyes" to detect warm blooded prey
48. Why would you go blind with poorly controlled diabetes?
49. What was the Nobel Prize - winning finding of Hartline in Limulus relating
to Mach bands and lateral inhibition?
neural firing pattern accentuates light-dark boundary
50. Explain why blindness in retinitis pigmentosa is witnessed by a ring
scotoma (tunnel vision).
rods go first and rods are localized in the mid-peripheral retina
51. Labeled amino acids are incorporated into rod outer segment proteins.
What is the significance of the movement of the band of label over the next
new disks are made and old ones are shed and phagocytosed (by the RPE)
52. This question relates to the evolution of protein families, for example
the G protein linked receptor. At one point on an evolutionary time scale,
there is one gene, later two, example those coding for the long and middle
wavelength rhodopsins. How do they think one gave rise to two?
unequal crossing over
53. Why would there be a current along the outside of a rod from the inner
segment to the outer segment in the dark?
ion pumps and the ATP that powers them are in the inner segment while channels
for those ions are in the outer segment
54. Why would the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate be decreased
when the rod is stimulated with light?
because the rod is hyperpolarized
55. You went home and tried what I suggested, shined a flashlight to one
eye. Alas, only one pupil constricts. Tell me a place where you have nerve
has to be after the pretectum. maybe between the pretectum and the Edinger-Westphal
nucleus (one of two paths) or from there to the ciliary ganglion, to the
muscle (on one side)
56. If Hubel and Wiesel had looked for a grandmother cell instead of the
cells they identified (e.g. simple cell), why wouldn't they have gotten
a Nobel Prize?
Their systematic approach was very productive, good thing they didn't start
looking for a needle in a haystack
57. How were the ocular dominance columns in normal and visually deprived
audioradiography, histological slices exposed photographic "film"
58. The human audibility curve is the threshold for hearing as a function
of frequency. The Y axis could be plotted as intensity in dynes per square
centimeter (plotted logarithmically from 0.0001 to 100) or, alternatively,
what more customary term for intensity (from 0 to 120)?
59. Answer either: (1) what the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory
cortex looks like; or (2) how would you demonstrate the tonotopic organization
of the primary auditory cortex?
cells that respond to low frequency at one end, high at the other, record
from places and run through a range of stimulus frequencies and see which
frequency each place responds to best
60. What causes the channels that mediate hearing to open?
mechanosensitive, would be membrane deformation, assisted by tip links
61. While jogging, you trip and start to fall. Name a sensory organ or a
spinal pathway involved in the elicited responses of your spinal motor neurons.
vestibular apparatus, vestibulospinal tract
62. "Three SNPs associated with PTC insensitivity: A49P, V262A, I296V."
Translate either (1) SNP, (2) PTC or (3) A49P, V262A, I296V.
single nucleotide polymorphism (genetic change), a bitter chemical tastant
for which there are tasters and non-tasters (based on a gene) in humans,
the number is the amino acid position - the first letter is the normal amino
acid, the second letter is what it is changed to
63. What kind of molecule (e.g. enzyme, pump, heterotrimeric G protein)
are - Answer for either of these molecules involved in taste transduction:
(1) T1R2, or (2) TRPM5?
G protein coupled receptor, channel
64. In an adult human, a new olfactory receptor cell is "born."
How does it "decide" which glomerulus to connect to?
based on the G protein coupled receptor it binds to, it connects to a glomerulus
collecting information from receptors expressing the same receptor molecule
65. Answer either (1) How did cAMP get to be higher after an odorand binds
the receptor molecule? Or (2) What does that cAMP do to change the cell's
the alpha subunit of the G protein (Golf) activates adenylyl cyclase, it
is the ligand for a calcium channel
Return to Syllabus
Return to Stark home page
This page was last updated 4/2/08