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BIOL-415 Nerve cell mechanisms in behavior
BIOL-615 Neural bases of behavior
Second test - Thursday, March 26, 2009 - Prof. Stark
All questions are short answer. 65 points total.
For Questions 1-8, refer to the pictures on this
1. Although it is operationally named the "massa intermedia,"
it is actually (what specific part of the brain?).
2. What is this conspicuous white structure seen in mid-sagittal section?
3. From a different perspective, you peeled off the hippocampus and saw
this. Answer either (1) What is it called (specifically)? Or (2) What (functional)
system is it part of?
lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, visual
4. From a different perspective, you saw this structure hiding in the lateral
ventricle behind the septum pellucidum. What is it?
head of the caudate nucleus
5. What is the name of this colossal body?
duh, corpus callosum
6. The hippocampus, shown here, is associated with white matter over its
surface plus two tracts that can be seen in (or near) mid-sagittal section.
One of those three would suffice for the answer.
fimbria, fornix, hippocampal commisure
7. A structure associated with the visual system is here. Answer either
(1) What is it called in the sheep? (2) What is it called in the frog? Or
(3) In combination with a nearby auditory structure, both bilateral, what
name indicates this foursome?
superior colliculus, optic tectum, corpora (lamina) quadrigemina
8. When you cut off the cerebellum and looked at the floor of the fourth
ventricle, what was this structure called (viewed from that perspective)?
brachium pontis of the cerebellar peduncle
For questions 9-12, see these
9. You can see this tract of white matter on the ventral surface of the
brain. What system is it part of?
10. Suppose I'm pointing to the diencephalons, not the ventricle. What part
of the diencephalons is this?
11. This and the nearby tracts and the associated gray matter are part of
a major subdivision of the brain collectively called (what?).
12. Which nerve controlling extraocular muscles has been cropped out?
13. Your animal care protocol is approved. You have your anesthetized rat
in the stereotaxic device and you have exposed bregma and lamda. What else
do you need to aim an electrode tip to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus?
a rat brain atlas
14. How come you do not have spongiform encephalitis even though you have
the protein in your brain, and even though you could contract spongiform
encephalitis if exposed to tissue from a person or animal that does?
the protein would need to be changed to the diseased configuration (scrapie)
from the normal configuration (control)
15. You are looking at the outside of the brain. Name a structure from the
prosencephalon that you cannot see.
basal ganglia (any of them), hippocampus, internal capsule
16. 'The cranial nerves have sensory and motor functions. Regarding motor
functions, they can be either for the (list both) motor systems."
autonomic & somatic
17. "The thalamus is a 'relay' for " Complete that sentence for
both general functions.
sensory and somatic motor
18. Regarding receptive field, answer either (1) Why is the Pacinian corpuscle's
receptive field the largest? Or (2) What units would you use to describe
the receptive field of a touch receptor?
deeper in the skin, a greater area of deformation would stimulate it; square
19. Under what normal circumstance would your receptors that are specifically
responsive to vibration be stimulated?
20. Gamma motor neurons (the fusimotor system) connects to (answer either)
(1) What? Or (2) For what purpose?
intrafusal muscle, preset the stretch of the stretch receptor
21. For capsaicin, answer either (1) What does the receptor look like (molecularly)?
(2) What would be the more normal way to stimulate this molecule? or (3)Tell
where (or how) this type of receptor was first found.
a channel, heat, transient receptor potential phenotype of Drosophila led
to mating defect
22. "In conclusion, a pain receptor is a chemoreceptor for (name a
histamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, bradykinin
23. In the lemniscal system, a sensory receptor in the lower part of the
body makes its first synapse (where)?.
24. In the sense of touch, neural processing takes place to sharpen spatial
localization of the stimulus. What kind of neural processing?
25. As described by dermatomes, sensory receptors in the legs input to sacral
and (what?) parts of the spinal cord.
26. For the touch input from the face that travels in the medial lemniscus,
answer either (1) What is the cranial nerve for input? Or (2) What is the
specific part of the thalamus for synapses?
trigeminal (V), VPM
27. A cell in the dorsal horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord carries
pain and temperature information to (where is the first synapse in?) the
28. You were introduced to the term "neospinothalamic" whose input
is from A-delta fibers. In comparison, answer either (1) What slower fibers
have input for the more evolutionary ancient system? Or (2) What is this
more ancient system called?
C fibers, paleospinothalamic
29. In general, pain from the lower body goes in the anterolateral system
with (what exception?). [Note, the question still applies to the lower part
of the body, i.e., not the face.]
from the viscera, via dorsal columns
30. Heart rate and blood pressure are changed substantially when a person
dives into water. These changes can be mediated by fairly minimal stimulation
with water. Answer either (1) What is that minimal part of the body that
needs to be stimulated? Or (2) What is the nerve that carries that information
to the brain?
face, trigeminal (V)
31. Compare the two-point discrimination threshold for the tongue vs for
way smaller for tongue
32. Where did the Raphe nucleus get the sensory information to feed out
to the cell in the dorsal horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord?
any of these will do: Somatosensory cortex -> amygdala and hypothalamus
-> midbrain periaqueductal gray
33. How does the G protein coupled receptor known as rhodopsin come to be
bound to all-trans retinal?
after light stimulated the 11-cis
34. Regarding the energy of a photon, answer either (1) What is the equation?
Or (2) What are the units energy for the answer (3.96 x 10-12 [for 500 nm
E = hv (that v is a nu), ergs
35. In addition to refractive correction for myopia (glasses or contact
lenses) name one of the two treatments used to correct myopia in the last
36. Everybody should get tested for glaucoma regularly. Answer either (1)
What is being measured? Or (2) Why, if left untreated, would glaucoma lead
pressure of the eyeball, ganglion cells die
37. When the zonule fibers (suspensory ligaments) are relaxed, answer either
(1) What is the state of the ciliary muscle? Or (2) For what type of vision
is the lens accommodated?
38. How come a young person with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa
(a rhodopsin missense mutation) still has rod-mediated vision?
the recessive allele still mediates transcription of a functional rhodopsin
39. People with retinitis pigmentosa develop "tunnel vision."
Answer either (1) What does this mean? Of (2) Why is that the visual impairment
of this disorder?
they are blind in a ring around the center (ring scotoma), loss of rods
40. For age-related macular degeneration, answer either (1) What specific
aspect of vision is lost? Or (2) When does it usually occur?
cone vision, around age 80
41. Concerning the extraordinary sensitivity of rods, answer either (1)
Why can you conclude that a rod can "see" one photon if it takes
6-14 photons absorbed by rods to see? Or (2) How did Hecht, Schlaar and
Pirenne do this landmark study?
those fall on 500 rods so one rod virtually never gets more than one, psychophysics
42. In addition to housing the melanin that keeps light from reflecting
around the inside of the eye, name one of the functions of the retinal pigment
epithelium (RPE) in maintaining the health or function of the rod outer
phagocytose shed rod tips, provide ii-cis retinal
43. The mechanism by which one gene (for long wavelength cones in New World
monkeys) became the yellow-green cone rhodopsin pair (in Old World monkeys)
is the general mechanism for the origin of the G protein coupled receptor
superfamily. How did one gene become two?
unequal crossing over in meiosis
44. By their very nature, fluorescent lights go on and off with alternating
current. Why don't you notice this?
above flicker fusion frequency (visual receptors are slow
45. For the phosphodiesterase in visual transduction, answer either (1)
What is directly upstream? Of (2) What is directly downstream?
transducin, channel (cGMP)
46. For the extracellular space outside the rod, answer either (1) Why is
there a current from inner to outer segment? Or (2) When is there a current
from inner to outer segment?
ions are pumped from the inner segment while channels are in the outer segment,
in the dark
47. Occasionally I pointed to how uninteresting the wall was vs the perceptual
richness of the map on the wall. Say something about how the receptive field
organization in the lateral geniculate nucleus contributes to this difference.
center surround influences contrast
48. What is the most obvious thing that happens between the pretectum and
the Edinger-Westfall nucleus?
49. Concerning layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus, answer either (1)
What is the main difference between layers 1, 4, & 6 vs 2, 3, &
5? Or (2) What is the main difference between layers 1 & 2 vs 3 to 6?
1,4,6 contralateral, 1, 2 magnocellular
50. In the "movie" of Hubel and Wiesel's simple cell experiment,
how come a wide line of light projected right on target did not elicit firing
while a thin line, also accurately aimed, did?
wide hit inhibitory surround also
51. An oblique electrode track traverses several millimeters of the visual
cortex. What change do you notice about the receptive field properties of
the firing neurons you encounter?
one yey -> both -> other, (also angle of line)
52. A radioactive amino acid was injected into one eye. Say one of the several
cell biological events that must occur to give an autoradiogram of ocular
dominance columns. (I am not asking how to do autoradiography.)
is put into protein, is transported down axon, is transported across synapse,
transported down other axon
53. Why did I tell the story of geese following the Nobel prize winning
ethologist Konrad Lorenz in the context of the visual cortex?
sensitive (critical) period
54. Two tuning forks give 5 beats per second if you listen with one ear.
Under what circumstances would you hear beats if you held each near opposite
ears? (Assume you cannot hear either with the ear on the other side.) Alternatively
answer this: What theory does this phenomenon of binaural beats support?
low frequency, Rutherford telephone theory
55. Imagine that you have come up with a nearly magical technique to record
and graph the responses of an auditory hair cell as a function of frequency.
How would that graph compare with a similar presentation of the tuning curve
of a cell in the primary auditory cortex?
much wider on the frequency axis
56. Why is it important that auditory receptor cells have voltage-gated
for release of transmitter vesicles
57. What is the difference between a kinocilium and stereocilia?
kino is real cilium with 9 plus 2, stereocilia are not
58. Where (if at all) does the auditory input (from one ear) become bilateral?
59. Otoconia are used Answer either (1) in what structures? Or (2) to stimulate
what kind of cells?
utricle and saccule, hair cells
60. Information from the vestibular system integrates with information (from
what major brain structure?) for the vestibulospinal tract.
61. What is the significance of a comparison of PTC sensitivity alleles
in primates, people of sub-Saharan Africa, and all other people?
that polymorphism originated early but after primates, but only people with
taster and non-taster came out of Africa to populate the world
62. For the TRPM5 channel used in taste, answer either (1) what flows through
this channel? or (2) What is the ligand for this channel?
calcium ions, IP3
63. Relative to all the other G protein coupled receptors we have discussed
in this course, what is unusual about the ones for sweet and umami?
they are dimers
64. For taste, give the name of the nucleus or the location of nucleus that
feeds to the VPM (ventral posterior medial) nucleus of the thalamus.
solitary nucleus in brainstem
65. Here's a partial list of nerves that carry taste and spice information
from the mouth: V, IX, & X. Give the name or number of the one I left
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