#2 and #3 dissection
For #1-#3, see this
1. If you were looking at the floor of the 4th ventricle with the cerebellum
removed, what is the name of this structure that emphasizes the appearance
of 4 bulges?
lamina (corpora) quadrigenina
2. If you were looking at the floor of the 4th ventricle with the cerebellum
removed, what subdivision of the cerebellar peduncle would these fibers
brachium pontis (middle cerebellar peduncle)
3. Between this view of the thalamus and the optic chiasm and the mammillary
bodies, what ventricle are you seeing?
For #4-#6, see this
4. Sometimes, when this structure is called a cranial nerve, what number
is it given?
5. What is this structure called?
6. In addition to controlling the pupil and the ciliary muscle, say something
this nerve does.
eye movements, eyelids
For #7, see this
7. These fibers are a portion of what tract?
For #8-#9, see this
8. What is the name of this major white structure?
9. What do we call these white fibers on the surface of the hippocampus?
For #10, see this
10. ANSWER EITHER (1) When this dissection is completed over the whole cerebrum,
what is the name given to this appearance? OR (2) What are the fibers that
connect one gyrus to the adjacent gyrus called?
corona radiata, fimbria fibers
For #11, see this
11. What is the name given to this entire structure, shown dissected into
three components on the other side?
For #12. see this
12. What is this specific portion of the thalamus called?
lateral geniculat nucleus
For #13, see this
13. What name of this area refers to the fact that the gray matter is flecked
For #14-#15, see this
14. What is this colosal white body called?
15. What is this mid-sagittal structure that blocks your view into the lateral
ventricle and the head of the caudate nucleus?
For #16, see this
16. What is the name of this whole structure, a major subdivision of the
#1 - receptors and start neuroanatomy
17. ANSWER BOTH: Kainate, NMDA, and AMPA (1) Ionotropic or metabotropic?
AND (2) What transmitter?
18. There are not any channel receptors for (name ONE transmitter).
19. "Alpha subunits are how the sympathetic nervous system constricts
arterioles." How does this relate to how a nasal decongestant spray
congestion is dilation, and an alpha agonist like neosynephrine constricts
(and thus decongests)
since this was a bad question (it should have read alpha receptors), I gave
credit except when the answer was clearly wrong
20. Where, in the molecular structure of the G protein-coupled receptor,
is the site that interacts with the G protein?
on the intracellular side (second and third loops and C terminal)PKC or
21. Protein kinase A (PKA): ANSWER EITHER (1) In the pathway that uses Gq
instead of Gs, what is in the cascade in place of PKA? OR (2) In the pathway
that uses Gi instead of Gs, what happens to cAMP levels when the pathway
PKC or calcium release, decrease
22. What does cAMP do to activate PKA?
binds inhibitory subunit to activate catalytic subunit
23. One product of phospholipase C (PLC) is inositol tris-phosphate. What
is IP3's downstream action?
ligand to channel to release calcium from cistern
23. With a stereotaxic apparatus and a rat brain atlas, what landmarks are
there for you to find a particular nucleus in your experimental rat's brain
in the rostral-caudal & medial-lateral dimensions?
sutures (lambda and bregma
25. Suppose you do not have spongiform encephalitis. Then you are exposed
to infected tissue. ANSWER EITHER (1) What form of what are you exposed
to change things? OR (2) What happens to what in your brain to make you
scrapie form of prion, your control form of scrapie protein is converted
to the scrapie form
26. What is missing from this list: Telencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon,
27. Before they get to the trapezoid body, where are the axons of the corticospinal
tract visible in the ventral view of the brain?
28. Which one of the three cranial nerves that control eye movements via
extraocular muscles also has other motor controls relevant to the eye?
29. Which part of the brain houses the nuclei for the trigeminal, abducens
and facial nerves?
30. Why would a woman have taken atropine before going out for the evening?
a dilated pupil makes her more attractive
31. What place in the human midbrain is the equivalent of the frog's optic
32. "The cranial nerves have sensory function, somatic motor function
autonomic motor function
33. If you took a cross section of the bottom of most of the lumbar and
all of the sacral part the "spinal cord," you would not see the
usual H-shaped gray matter surrounded by a circle of white matter. Instead,
you would see (what?).
34. What are the slowest afferent fibers of the somatosensory nervous system?
35. A muscle spindle has intrafusal muscle fibers (nuclear bag and nuclear
chain) innervated by gamma motor neurons. In addition there are (what?)
that send information to the CNS by (what?).
stretch receptors, Group I and II afferent axons
36. How would you demonstrate that a Pacinian corpuscle has a large receptive
poke or vibrate various places in the skin over the receptor while recording
37. Capsaicin gates the VR-1 receptor. ANSWER EITHER (1) What Drosophila
visual mutation led to the founding of this family of channels? OR (2) Under
normal physiological conditions, how is this receptor stimulated?
transient receptor potential, heat
38. For the nociceptor, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is its first synapse? (2)
What is the presynaptic transmitter at the pain cell's terminal OR (3) Where
does the postsynaptic neuron project?
in the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord, enkephalin, thalamus
39. One stripe of a dermatome is based on what anatomy of neural input?
what comes in past one dorsal root ganglion
40. "In the Brown-Sequard syndrome, you have an ipsilateral loss of
touch as mediated by the lemniscal system." ANSWER EITHER (1) What
is the nature of the lesion? OR (2) What and where is the alternative sensory
lesion halfway across the spinal cord, contralateral loss of anterolateral
41. "Midline myelotomy is useful for palliative treatment?" ANSWER
EITHER (1) What do we mean by palliative care? OR (2) What and where is
a midline myelotomy?
make prevention of pain primary (like in terminal cancer), lesion the white
matter between the dorsal columns
42. In contrast with the input via the dorsal root of the spinal cord, where
does somatosensory information from the face come in?
43. A human rod is very sensitive. Why is it theoretically impossible for
it to be more sensitive?
it is stimulated by a single photon, the smallest quantum of light
44. Which two opsins in humans are most similar in amino acid sequence?
middle- and long-wavelength
45. Who went through a bottleneck in which the selection pressures for high
acuity color vision were relaxed?
46. What does Mary Lyon's X inactivation explanation of dosage compensation
on the X chromosome say about color vision?
female "carriers" of red or green color blindness actually have
47. Why might vision be affected by erectile dysfunction medications?
a cGMP phosphodiesterase is inhibited by Viagra and is part of the photoransduction
48. "The air-cornea interface is 42 diopters." Explain how vision
under water with vs without goggles relates to this point.
a water-cornea interface virtually abolishes this
49. Say what a contracted ciliary muscle does to EITHER (1) suspensory ligaments
(zonule fibers), (2) lens shape, OR (3) vision.
relaxes for a rounder lens for near vision
50. Why would the ophthalmologist blast holes in the retina with a laser?
prevent further angiogenesis in diabetic retinopathy
51. What disorder leads to tunnel vision and why?
retinitis pigmentosa b/c of mid periphery rod loss
52. Humans see "unique yellow." ANSWER EITHER What COLOR is just
a few nm (1) shorter OR (2) longer wavelength than the wavelength that looks
shorter green, longer orange
53. In Hubel and Wiesel's work, there is moderate firing when a thin line
of light is turned on right on the excitatory receptive field. What happens
if a wide line of white is turned on, centered in the same place but extending
to either side of where the thin line of light had been shown?
no firing b/c excitatory line is inhibited by surround
54. Regarding feature detection, what and where is a "bug detector?"
in the frog retina, ganglion cells respond to small dark noving dots
55. One optic nerve is destroyed. How is it that that pupil constricts when
the other eye is stimulated?
after the information goes bilateral, it comes back to the eye via the oculomotor
56. You have a slice of visual cortex from a cat that had had a radioactive
amino acid injected into one eye. Say something about the method that would
allow you to visualize ocular dominance columns.
autoradiography of histological slices of cortex works b/c protein made
crosses synapses at the LGN
57. Given the data on how stimulation by sound causes vibrations in the
basilar membrane, why is it astounding that you can tell the difference
of stimuli that differ by just a few Hz?
because localization is crude, there is tremendous overlap in part of basilar
58. What is it that opens the transduction channels in auditory receptor
deformation of channels on tips of stereocilia assisted by tip links
59. "An open potassium channel leads to depolarization of the cell."
How can this be?
because of high extracellular potassium in the endolymph
60. Auditory projection ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is the first place where
the projection from one ear is bilateral? OR (2) Name the place for auditory
synapses up from the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus on the way to the
medial geniculate complex of the thalamus.
superior olive, inferior colliculus
61. The vestibular nucleus feeds to the abducens nucleus which, in turn,
feeds to the lateral rectus plus (what nucleus?).
62. Say something about the genetics of PTC taste sensitivity.
the T allele is dominant, so only tt is non-taster
63. T1R3 is a G protein-linked receptor used to mediate sweet and umami
tastes. What is unique about its interactions with other membrane proteins
relative to any other G protein-coupled receptor we have covered in this
dimerizes with T1R2 (sweet) and T1R1 (amino acids)
64. In your "butterfly" collection, it is easy to tell a male
moth from a female moth on the basis of the antennae. Say something about
male antenna is big and feathery with lots of receptors for female sex attractant
65. In an olfactory receptor cell, what does cAMP bind to?
ligand for channel (Ca2+/Na+)
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Last updated 4/9/2013