For Questions 1-4, go here
1. "Fimbria" is the name given to the fibers that make this structure
look white. These fimbria fibers form into ANSWER EITHER (1) what tract
that goes to the hypothalamus OR (2) what tract that crosses over to the
fornix, hippocampal commisure
2. To what sensory system does this tract belong?
3. To what sensory system does this structure belong
4. State ONE of the functions of this nerve seen coming out of the cerebral
eye movements, eylid movements (somatic motor), pupil constriction, accomodation
For Questions 5-8, go here
5. If you removed this septum, you would see a structure. What is the function
of the structure you would see?
coordination of voluntary muscle movements
6. If you saw these fibers on the ventral view of the brain, how would that
area be labeled?
7. What is the name of the huge area of white matter being ripped here?
8. What is the function (or the name) of this area?
visual relay area, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
For Questions 9-12, go For
9. What is the function (or the name) of the tract you see here in the trapezoid
voluntary motor, corticospinal (pyramidal) tract
10. In between the two lines marked "10," what major subdivision
of the diencephalons is located here?
11. If you viewed these fibers as one of the 3 divisions of the cerebellar
peduncle, what would you call it?
12. Give one of the many possible names associated with this structure.
striatum, putamen, globus pallidus, basal ganglia (nuclei), lentiform (lenticular)
For Questions 13-15, go here
13. What is the name of the artery whose cut away stump you see here feeding
the circle of Willis?
14. What is the name of the ventricle you see here?
15. What is the name of this dissected tract (the one furthest to the right)?
16. What is missing from this list of gray matter components of the telencephalon:
Cerebral cortex, Basal ganglia, Olfactory bulb, Basal forebrain?
17. Compare the lengths of the axons that are in the dorsal columns and
the axons in the lateral corticospinal tract.
wow, they are both really long, (1) from the peripheral sensory receptor
to the nuclei cuneatus and gracilis, (2) from precentral gyrus to spinal
18. With the aid of a rat brain atlas, an approved protocol, anesthesia,
and a few surgical tools, you can lower an electrode into a specific part
of the brain if you have what instrument?
19. In Pruisinger's Nobel prize winning theory, PrP-Sc can turn (what?)
into PrP-Sc on contact?
prp-c (the control prion protein)
20. What two portions of the brain (one in the metencephalon, the other
in the myelencephalon) house the nuclei of cranial nerves # 5 (trigeminal)
to # 12 (hypoglossal)?
pons and medulla
21. Caudal to approximately the level of lumbar nerve #l, the spinal cord
with its iconic H-shaped gray matter surrounded by white matter no longer
exists. What replaces it?
22. Dura mater, arachnoid matter, and (what?) constitute the three memnings
23. What are the two types of axons, one myelinated and one unmyelinated,
that carry pain information?
a-delta and C
24. What do they call the touch receptors that are not encapsulated?
free nerve endings
25. In addition to the stretch receptors, what cells are in a muscle spindle?
intrafusal muscle fibers, nuclear bag and chain fibers
26. Say something about the receptor that is stimulated by capsaicin.
channel, VR-1, a trp channel, responds to heat
27. Your text has a picture of dermatomes. Why was the face not included
in that picture?
face input is via trigeminal, not spinal segments
28. Where do neospinothalamic and paleospinothalamic systems decussate?
at the point of entry
29. For palliative treatment of visceral pain in cancer patients, where
would tracts be lesioned?
in the midline of the dorsal columns
30. Name a portion of the thalamus that relays touch information.
ventral posterior lateral and medial nuclei
31. Name a place on the body where the two-point threshold is low.
finger tips, tongue, lips
32. A descending input (e. g. from the Raphe nucleus) feeds to an interneuron
that contains (what transmitter?) to modulate pain.
33. How does light interact with the chromophore of rhodopsin in the very
first step in visual transduction?
excites electron orbitals to allow cis to trans isomerization of retinal
34. ROYGBIV. This is a series. If that series continued, what wavelength
35. Humans have 4 photoreceptor types with peaks at 420 nm, 500 nm, 560
nm and (give either an approximate wavelength or the color of that wavelength)?
530 nm (green)
36. Many people correct their near-sightedness with LASIK (and before that,
RK). How do these procedures change the refractive error?
change the shape of the cornea
37. The ciliary muscle is contracted. ANSWER EITHER (1) What nerve innervates
this muscle? OR (2) What type of vision is this good for?
3-oculomotor, near vision
38. There is a yellow pigment in front of the fovea. Answer either (1) What
are the chemicals? (2) What are these pigments called? (3) What is the function
of these pigments?
carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, macular pigments, protect photoreceptors
from blue light
39. What is the name of the disorder an adolescent would suffer from if
(s)he had a missense mutation of the rod rhodopsin gene?
40. You see a dim star "out of the corner of your eye." Then you
look at it and you cannot see it. Explain.
rods are more sensitive than cones
41. Why does an aging pigment accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells?
it is the indigestible residue of the phagolysosomal system from a lifetime
of "eating" shed rod tips
42. How did there come to be two color vision genes near each other on the
a duplication of the gene (stretch of chromosome) between new and old world
monkeys in evolution
43. "You can walk through the forest with nothing but star light, but
you cannot run." Why not?
phototransduction is slow
44. Why might Viagra affect vision?
it inhibits cGMP PDE, and cGMP PDE is activated by the G protein in phototransduction
45. Why does the rod (or cone) hyperpolarize in the light?
the sodium-calcium channel closes
46. Feature detection, lateral inhibition. What feature is detected in the
contour (contrast, Mach bands)
47. The wiring from where to where is why the pupillary reflex is bilateral?
pretectum to Edinger-Westphal nucleus
48. What is different between layers 1,4&6 vs 2,3&5 in the lateral
contralateral vs ipsilateral eye
49. How do the response properties of visual cortical cells change as an
electrode is advanced obliquely?
preferred angle changes then ocular dominance changes
50. The human eye connects to the superior colliculus, in addition to other
places, and that area helps to integrate eye and head movements. In the
frog, what is the equivalent part of the brain called?
51. What do we call the special type of depth perception that results from
the fixation of both eyes on an object and the integration of that information
by binocularly driven cells in the visual cortex?
52. You have a histological section of the visual cortex. Describe how you
visualize the ocular dominance columns after one eye had been injected with
a radioactive amino acid.
autoradiography, expose in the dark to photographic film for the right amount
of time and then develop the film
53. What aspect of visual development prompted me to draw a parallel to
imprinting of mother's image in precocial geese?
the 2 & 1/2 month sensitive (critical) period after birth required for
binocular vision in the development of normal binocular cortical connectivity
54. If a sound is 120 dB, how much louder than a 20 dB sound is it (in log
55. Why do bats use ultrasound?
to find insects in the dark using echolocation
56. Compression into the scala vestibula ANSWER EITHER (1) reaches the scala
tympani via what opening? OR (2) is released back to the middle ear through
helicotrema, round window
57. A shear force between the hair cells and what structure bends the stereocilia?
58. What makes channels open in auditory receptors.
deformation of the channels on the tips of stereocilia assisted by tip links
59. At what level in the brain does the input from one ear go to the contralateral
pons (superior olive)
60. In addition to the semicircular canals, what are the two organs that
detect head movement?
61. Give one nucleus in the brain between Scarpa's ganglion (from the vestibular
apparatus) and the rectus muscles for eye movement.
medial vestibular nucleus, abducens nucleus, oculomotor nucleus
62. How many alleles of the PTC taster gene are there in most of the human
just taster and non-taster
63. What kind of molecule are the T2R, T1R2, T1, R3, T1R1 molecules involved
g-protein coupled receptors
64. Concerning the channel in amino acid and bitter taste receptors, ANSWER
EITHER (1) What kind of channel is used? OR (2) What gates the channel?
65. Taste buds in the tongue and the epiglottis feed to the CNS via what
three cranial nerves?
7 facial, 9 glossopharyngial, 10 vagus
last updated 2/15/2016
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