For Questions 1-4, go here

1. "Fimbria" is the name given to the fibers that make this structure look white. These fimbria fibers form into ANSWER EITHER (1) what tract that goes to the hypothalamus OR (2) what tract that crosses over to the other side?

fornix, hippocampal commisure

2. To what sensory system does this tract belong?

olfactory

3. To what sensory system does this structure belong

vision

4. State ONE of the functions of this nerve seen coming out of the cerebral peduncles.

eye movements, eylid movements (somatic motor), pupil constriction, accomodation (autonomic)

For Questions 5-8, go here

5. If you removed this septum, you would see a structure. What is the function of the structure you would see?

coordination of voluntary muscle movements

6. If you saw these fibers on the ventral view of the brain, how would that area be labeled?

pons

7. What is the name of the huge area of white matter being ripped here?

internal capsule

8. What is the function (or the name) of this area?

visual relay area, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

For Questions 9-12, go For Questions 13-15

9. What is the function (or the name) of the tract you see here in the trapezoid body?

voluntary motor, corticospinal (pyramidal) tract

10. In between the two lines marked "10," what major subdivision of the diencephalons is located here?

hypothalamus

11. If you viewed these fibers as one of the 3 divisions of the cerebellar peduncle, what would you call it?

brachium pontis

12. Give one of the many possible names associated with this structure.

striatum, putamen, globus pallidus, basal ganglia (nuclei), lentiform (lenticular) nucleus (body)

For Questions 13-15, go here

13. What is the name of the artery whose cut away stump you see here feeding the circle of Willis?

internal carotid

14. What is the name of the ventricle you see here?

third

15. What is the name of this dissected tract (the one furthest to the right)?

fornix

16. What is missing from this list of gray matter components of the telencephalon: Cerebral cortex, Basal ganglia, Olfactory bulb, Basal forebrain?

hippocampus

17. Compare the lengths of the axons that are in the dorsal columns and the axons in the lateral corticospinal tract.

wow, they are both really long, (1) from the peripheral sensory receptor to the nuclei cuneatus and gracilis, (2) from precentral gyrus to spinal motor neuron

18. With the aid of a rat brain atlas, an approved protocol, anesthesia, and a few surgical tools, you can lower an electrode into a specific part of the brain if you have what instrument?

stereotaxic

19. In Pruisinger's Nobel prize winning theory, PrP-Sc can turn (what?) into PrP-Sc on contact?

prp-c (the control prion protein)

20. What two portions of the brain (one in the metencephalon, the other in the myelencephalon) house the nuclei of cranial nerves # 5 (trigeminal) to # 12 (hypoglossal)?

pons and medulla

21. Caudal to approximately the level of lumbar nerve #l, the spinal cord with its iconic H-shaped gray matter surrounded by white matter no longer exists. What replaces it?

cauda equina

22. Dura mater, arachnoid matter, and (what?) constitute the three memnings (brain "membranes").

pia mater

23. What are the two types of axons, one myelinated and one unmyelinated, that carry pain information?

a-delta and C

24. What do they call the touch receptors that are not encapsulated?

free nerve endings

25. In addition to the stretch receptors, what cells are in a muscle spindle?

intrafusal muscle fibers, nuclear bag and chain fibers

26. Say something about the receptor that is stimulated by capsaicin.

channel, VR-1, a trp channel, responds to heat

27. Your text has a picture of dermatomes. Why was the face not included in that picture?

face input is via trigeminal, not spinal segments

28. Where do neospinothalamic and paleospinothalamic systems decussate?

at the point of entry

29. For palliative treatment of visceral pain in cancer patients, where would tracts be lesioned?

in the midline of the dorsal columns

30. Name a portion of the thalamus that relays touch information.

ventral posterior lateral and medial nuclei

31. Name a place on the body where the two-point threshold is low.

finger tips, tongue, lips

32. A descending input (e. g. from the Raphe nucleus) feeds to an interneuron that contains (what transmitter?) to modulate pain.

enkephalin

33. How does light interact with the chromophore of rhodopsin in the very first step in visual transduction?

excites electron orbitals to allow cis to trans isomerization of retinal

34. ROYGBIV. This is a series. If that series continued, what wavelength is next?

ultraviolet (UV)

35. Humans have 4 photoreceptor types with peaks at 420 nm, 500 nm, 560 nm and (give either an approximate wavelength or the color of that wavelength)?

530 nm (green)

36. Many people correct their near-sightedness with LASIK (and before that, RK). How do these procedures change the refractive error?

change the shape of the cornea

37. The ciliary muscle is contracted. ANSWER EITHER (1) What nerve innervates this muscle? OR (2) What type of vision is this good for?

3-oculomotor, near vision

38. There is a yellow pigment in front of the fovea. Answer either (1) What are the chemicals? (2) What are these pigments called? (3) What is the function of these pigments?

carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, macular pigments, protect photoreceptors from blue light

39. What is the name of the disorder an adolescent would suffer from if (s)he had a missense mutation of the rod rhodopsin gene?

retinitis pigmentosa

40. You see a dim star "out of the corner of your eye." Then you look at it and you cannot see it. Explain.

rods are more sensitive than cones

41. Why does an aging pigment accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells?

it is the indigestible residue of the phagolysosomal system from a lifetime of "eating" shed rod tips

42. How did there come to be two color vision genes near each other on the X chromosome?

a duplication of the gene (stretch of chromosome) between new and old world monkeys in evolution

43. "You can walk through the forest with nothing but star light, but you cannot run." Why not?

phototransduction is slow

44. Why might Viagra affect vision?

it inhibits cGMP PDE, and cGMP PDE is activated by the G protein in phototransduction

45. Why does the rod (or cone) hyperpolarize in the light?

the sodium-calcium channel closes

46. Feature detection, lateral inhibition. What feature is detected in the Limulus eye?

contour (contrast, Mach bands)

47. The wiring from where to where is why the pupillary reflex is bilateral?

pretectum to Edinger-Westphal nucleus

48. What is different between layers 1,4&6 vs 2,3&5 in the lateral geniculate nucleus?

contralateral vs ipsilateral eye

49. How do the response properties of visual cortical cells change as an electrode is advanced obliquely?

preferred angle changes then ocular dominance changes

50. The human eye connects to the superior colliculus, in addition to other places, and that area helps to integrate eye and head movements. In the frog, what is the equivalent part of the brain called?

optic tectum

51. What do we call the special type of depth perception that results from the fixation of both eyes on an object and the integration of that information by binocularly driven cells in the visual cortex?

stereopsis

52. You have a histological section of the visual cortex. Describe how you visualize the ocular dominance columns after one eye had been injected with a radioactive amino acid.

autoradiography, expose in the dark to photographic film for the right amount of time and then develop the film

53. What aspect of visual development prompted me to draw a parallel to imprinting of mother's image in precocial geese?

the 2 & 1/2 month sensitive (critical) period after birth required for binocular vision in the development of normal binocular cortical connectivity

54. If a sound is 120 dB, how much louder than a 20 dB sound is it (in log units)?

5

55. Why do bats use ultrasound?

to find insects in the dark using echolocation

56. Compression into the scala vestibula ANSWER EITHER (1) reaches the scala tympani via what opening? OR (2) is released back to the middle ear through what structure?

helicotrema, round window

57. A shear force between the hair cells and what structure bends the stereocilia?

tectorial membrane

58. What makes channels open in auditory receptors.

deformation of the channels on the tips of stereocilia assisted by tip links

59. At what level in the brain does the input from one ear go to the contralateral side?

pons (superior olive)

60. In addition to the semicircular canals, what are the two organs that detect head movement?

utricle, saccule

61. Give one nucleus in the brain between Scarpa's ganglion (from the vestibular apparatus) and the rectus muscles for eye movement.

medial vestibular nucleus, abducens nucleus, oculomotor nucleus

62. How many alleles of the PTC taster gene are there in most of the human population?

just taster and non-taster

63. What kind of molecule are the T2R, T1R2, T1, R3, T1R1 molecules involved in taste?

g-protein coupled receptors

64. Concerning the channel in amino acid and bitter taste receptors, ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of channel is used? OR (2) What gates the channel?

trp, IP3

65. Taste buds in the tongue and the epiglottis feed to the CNS via what three cranial nerves?

7 facial, 9 glossopharyngial, 10 vagus

last updated 2/15/2016

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