1. There are large differences in the number of muscle cells per motor neuron. What kind of movement would be controlled by muscles with a low number?

fine movement such as extraocular muscles would mediate

2. In one figure, the axon of the alpha motor neuron is shown connecting to "extrafusal" muscle fibers. ANSWER EITHER (1) What other type of efferent motor neuron is shown? (2) What typ of muscle do these other nerves innervate? OR (3) What is the name of the compartment that houses these other muscles?

gamma motor neuron, intrafusal muscle cells, muscle spindles

3. There is a lumbar enlargement in the spinal cord. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the other enlargement? OR (2) What makes the spinal cord larger in these two areas?

cervical, more motor neurons for limbs

4. Name ONE of the two places on the ventral view of the brain where the fibers of the corticospinal tract can be seen.

cerebral peduncle, medullary pyramid

5. "There is an ipsilateral motor impairment for a half spinal cord lesion as part of the Brown Sequard syndrome." Where is the decussation of this tract?

medulla, just caudal to the pyramid

6. Hypogolssal, (spinal) accessory, vagus, facial. What cranial nerve is missing from that list of corticobulbar motor output nerves for face muscles?

trigeminal (5)

7. "The bottom part of the left side of the face is innervated by the face representation in the right primary motor cortex." In contrast, how is the top part of the left side of the face innervated from the face representation in the cingulate motor area?


8. How does information from the basal ganglia reach the spinal motor neuron?

via thalamus to precentral gyrus to corticospinal tract

9. Inferior olive, spinal cord and vestibular nuclei feed to the cerebellar cortex. What other major place in the brain sends it's input to the cerebellar cortex (via the "pons" (pontine nuclei)?

the whole cerebral cortex (with the exception of the auditory and visual cortices)

10. In a block diagram for Parkinson's disease, there are arrows. For instance, a small arrow with a minus sign indicates diminished inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus from the external segment of the globus pallidus. In this whole cascade, only one change is primary, all the others are consequences. What is that primary defect?

decreased dopamine from substantia nigra to caudate and putamen

11. In Huntington's disease ANSWER EITHER (1) In what direction is the input from the thalamus to the cortex affected? OR (2) Is this input excitatory or inhibitory?

increased, excitatioon

12. For the PROTEIN that is altered in Huntington's chorea, what is the difference between affected vs. normal people?

more glutamines in repeat

13. Give ONE neuron type that connects to the cerebellar Purkinje cell.

climbing fiber, parallel fiber (granule cell)

14. Say something that is in the pathway from the superior colliculus to the lateral OR medial rectus muscle.

PPRF, abducens nucleus, oculomotor nucleus

15. Wnt, FGF, BMP, shh, and RA. These are all developmental signal molecules released by one cell and received by a target cell. Among these, what is the ONE fundamental difference in the LOCATION of the receptor protein?

membrane or intracellular (for RA only)

16. What is inside a Drosophila larva that becomes adult structures?

imaginal discs

17. Mutants like antennapedia (that puts legs where the antennae should be) or bithorax (that puts a second thoracic segment with wings next to the normal one) are called (what?).

homeotic mutants

18. Say something about the G protein in the FGF (or sevenless) signal transduction cascade.

called ras, small, monomer

19. With FGF2, a neural crest progenitor becomes a sympathetic progenitor. Then, under the influence of NGF or CNTF, this sympathetic progenitor becomes (name ONE of the two types of fully differentiated cell types).

cholinergic or adrenergic neuron

20. The optic vesicle ANSWER EITHER (1) will turn into the optic nerve, the pigment epithelium and (what?) OR (2) It will induce what would have become the overlying skin to become (what optic structure?)

retina, lens

21. One figure related to a fundamental point showed a "postmitotic neuroblast" exiting a cycle. ANSWER EITHER (1) Exiting what cycle? (2) Arrested at what stage in the cycle? OR (3) To what fundamental dogma about the nervous system does this figure relate?

cell cycle, G1, there are no mitoses of neurons in the mammalian CNS

22. What grew from where to where in Roger Sperry's demonstration of neurobiotaxis?

optic nerve from retina to optic tectum

23. Growth cones: ANSWER EITHER (1) How did Ramon y Cajal visualize them? OR (2) How were they visualized in the confocal microscope?

silver staining technique of Golgi, actin in growing tips labeled with antibody and a secondary antibody with a fluorescent tag

24. Agrin and its receptor does (what?) in the development of (what model of the synapse?).

it is involved in gathering the nicotinic receptors to the end plate of the neuromuscular junction

25. (In what way?) does the work on limb buds suggest apoptosis in the formation of the appropriate number of (what kind of cells?).

removal (or transplantation of a supernumerary limb bud) regulates number of spinal motor neurons that survive

26. What is the treatment for depression that provides some evidence for Hebb's explanation of learning?

electroconvulsive shock should disrupt reverberating circuits

27. How does nerve connection to the motor endplate differ at maturity vs. at birth?

multiple nerves connect early, only one later

28. Six days of deprivation of patterned visual experience in one eye will eliminate cortical input from the deprived eye as well as binocular input in the cat. When?

that sensitive (critical) period is at the end of the first month of life

29. Why do they call classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning "associative learning?"

stimulus and response are paired repeatedly

30. How does PKA become activated on a long term to give a persistent activation of a synapse?

the inhibitory subunits are degraded via ubiquitin hydrolase

31. What is the control to prove that the increased CA1 EPSP after tetanus in the Schaffer collateral is specific to that synapse?

record from an adjacent synapse where the axon was not repeatedly stimulated

32. What two inputs to a cerebellar Purkinje cell need to be paired to get long term depression?

climbing fiber and parallel fiber

33. Draw a line bisection as drawn by a patient with hemispatial neglect.

a line with a dividing line that is not in the middle

34. The pyriform area is sometimes called the paleocortex, while the cerebral cortex is sometimes called the neocortex. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the other area whose word ends in "cortex?" OR (2) What do we more commonly call it?

archicortex, hippocampus

35. Chimps cannot speak. Why did some researchers believe that they did, however, have some rudiments of language?

with sign language or a key board of symbols, they cn communicate

36. A split-brain subject fixates on one spot. An object is presented but (s)he cannot say what it is. Where is it presented? and explain why, in terms of visual projection, (s)he cannot say where it is.

in the left visual field, it would only reach the right hemisphere, lo language there

37. Why does there have to be some synchrony in neuron firing in order for there to be waves in the EEG?

out of synch, all electrical signals would cancel

38. "PGO" spikes at the onset of REM. Say what ONE of the letters (PGO) stands for.

pontine, geniculate, occipital

39. For EITHER the Raphe nucleus OR the locus coeruleus, state the neurotransmitter they send around the brain.

serotonin, norepinephrine

40. Several important inhibitory transmitters are used in the brain and spinal cord in the circuitry of sleep. Name ONE.

gaba, glycine

41. For a diurnal animal (like you) say what happens when moved from entrainment on a light-dark photoperiod to free-running in constant darkness.

circadian rhythm is longer than 24 hours

42. Say something about the pathway for connection of the eye to the pineal in the human.

eye to suprachiasmatic to paraventricular nuclei (hypothalamus) to spinal cord (intermediolateral cell column to sympathetic chain to superior cervical nucleus to pineal

43. Say something about melatonin.

made in pineal, a product of seretonin, related to cycle, might be related to seasoonal reproduction cycle, might help overcome jet lag

44. Say something about a visual pigment that could entrain a rhythm to light in a mammal if all the rods and cones had degenerated

melanopsin, in ganglion cells, like an invertebrate rhodopsin, also expressed in melanophores

45. Say something about a photoreceptor that could mediate entrainment to a light-dark cycle in a bird that had been enucleated.

pineal has photoreceptors and light can reach the pineal

46. PERIOD is a protein in Drosophila which, if the gene is mutant, changes the length of the period. Optimism in the early days suggested it might be a clock in the brain. More mechanistically, eventually, how was it shown to regulate rhythm?

nuclear protein whose mRNA (and protein) cycles, combines with cryptochrome to regulate gene transcriiption

47. Cannon coined the term "fight or flight." What the heck? Those two things are not the same, so why would he lump them together and we quote him for the next century?

they both are enhanced through action of the sympathetic nervous system

48. Answer EITHER For (1) perinatal testosterone in the female (2) a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus OR a lesion in the ventromedial hypothalamus, what happens to feeding behavior?

increase, decrease, increase

49. Say something about myelin in lampreys.

they do not have myelin,

50. For the terms "paranode" OR "internode," ANSWER EITHER (1) Define ONE of those terms with regard to myelin and Schwann cells. OR (2) What node?

near the node of Ranvier, or between nodes (obviously where there is myelin)

51. Some Schwann cells form myelin. What about the other Schwann cells?

they engulf several axons without myelinating them

52. Who was the famous railroad researcher who got a spike driven through his brain?

phineas Gage

53. In addition to Mullerian inhibiting factor, what chemical directs indifferent ducts toward male ducts?


54. What part of the brain is different in heterosexual vs homosexual men, according to data of LeVay?

hypothalamus (interstitial nucleus of anterior h, or suprachiasmatic nucleus of the h)

55. In the rat, what happens to the cortical representation of the mother's ventrum during lactation?

it increases in area

56. People and flies get vitamin A (and other important molecules) through dietary carotenoids. Name one.

beta carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin

57. In Drosophila, autophagy via coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies and lysosomes characterizes turnover of photoreceptive membrane. Say something about how turnover in vertebrate photoreceptors is handled.

tips of rods are shed, phagocytosed by pigment epithelium, undigested turns to lipofuscin, new disks are made at base of rod

58. In the rod, rhodopsin activates transducin which activates phosphodiesterase which affects a cGMP gated channel. In Drosophila, say something about EITHER (1) the enzyme used instead of phosphodiesterase OR (2) the name or property of the channel.

phospholipase, transient receptor potential

59. What visual capability do Drosophila and people missing a lens have (that you do not have)?

sensitivity to ultraviolet light

60. With a technique as crude as the ERG (electroretinogram), how is it possible to make conclusions about the specific properties of R1-6, R7 and R8 when the electrode records the responses of all of those receptors?

mutants like sevenless and rdgB, the latter eliminating R1-6 systematically simplify the retina

61. How does the radial 8-arm maze show that a rat has a special appreciation of the space in which it lives in its working memory?

quickly learns to visit all 8 arms

62. Why was it important to demonstrate that Brenda Milner's patient HM, with his bilateral hippocampal lesions, could learn to draw using a reflection in a mirror?

demonstrates that non-declarative memory (motor skill) is not as impaired as declarative memory

63. On autopsy, people who had suffered from Alzheimer's disease have characteristic accumulations of material. For EITHER (1) intracellular OR (2) extracellular accumulations, what are the molecules OR, alternatively, say what these accumulations are called.

neurofibrillary tangles (tau), palques (amyloid)

64. Explain, in terms of the general interpretation of Lloyd Morgan's cannon, where he stood on the materialist vs mentalist dichotomy.

he was mechanistic and did not feel the need to invoke an animal's mental capacity to explain its behavior

65. "...atoms and electrons...are...forced about...by the...properties of the whole molecule." How did Nobelist Roger Sperry relate this statement to argue against predestination (i.e. that humans have free will)?

although physical laws still apply for molecules, they are superseded by the emergent properties of the brains in which they dwell

last revised 5/13/2013

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