1. Why are pheromones of agricultural relevance?

male moths can be attracted to traps so that females of species that eat crops do not reproduce

2. "Like for vision, olfactory channels use an intracellular ligand." What is that ligand?


3. "Mature glomeruli are innervated exclusively by receptors..." with what common property?

they all express the same G protein linked receptor

4. Identify one of the two calcium channels in striated muscle.

dihydropyridine receptor in t-tubules and ryanodine receptor in sarcoplasmic reticulum

5. In approximately how many spinal cord segments are the spinal motor neurons for the gastrocnemius muscle?

five or six

6. Why are there cervical and lumbar enlargements?

because of the extra motor neurons needed to innervate the fore- and hind-limbs

7. Where is the pyramidal decussation?

just caudal to the pyramid in the medulla

8. Compare the pyramidal motor system with the lemiscal vs the spinothalamic motor systems in terms of the loss from a half spinal cord lesion.

like lemniscal (ipsilateral impairment) because both have decussation in medulla

9. Why does a unilateral upper motor lesion (face area of the motor cortex or internal capsule) affect only the lower part of one side of the face while a lower motor lesion (facial nerve) affects the top and bottom of one side of the face?

the upper part of the face is bilaterally innervated

10. Cerebral cortex,, red nucleus, superior colliculus and reticular formation. What brain nucleus is missing from this list of structures that send innervation to the spinal nmotor neurons?

vestibular nucleus

11. Which of the three basal ganglia does not recieve input from the substantia nigra pars compacta?

globus pallidus

12. Where does the thalamus relay motor information to?

the cerebral (motor) cortex

13. In Huntington's chorea, how is the positive influence of the thalamus to the cerebral cortex affected?

it is increased

14. What is the neuron that receives input from the granule cells and the climbing fiber and outputs an inhibitory signal to a neuron in the deep cerebellar nucleus?

cerebellar Purkinje cell

15. How does the superior colliculus wire to the abducens nucleus?

via the PPRF (parapontine reticular formation)

16. Here is a list of developmental ligands that signal to membrane receptors then to the DNA: shh, FGF, BMP, Wnt, and boss. For ONE of these, give the name of the membrane receptor.

patched, rtk, rsk, frizzled, sev

17. "Bcd is a maternal gene, while kr is a zygotic gene." What is the difference with respect to who makes the mRNA?

the mother for bcd, the zygote for kr

18. Give one of the steps in the sevenless signal transduction cascade between the receptor tyrosine kinase and the DNA.

downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase, son of sevenless, (alternatively SNF/Grb2), ras, MAPKinase

19. The neural groove, most of which is the precursor of the central nervous system, has a group of cells set aside to later become sensory and autonomic ganglia in the peripneral nervous system. What is this group of cells, excluded from the neural tube, called?

neural crest

20. "CNS neurons do not regenerate by mitosis." This was said in the very first lecture. At what stage in the cell cycle do neuroblasts become postmitotic?

they are arrested in G1

21. What did Sperry do to alter the retino-tectal projection so that the frog was not able to catch the fly with its tongue?

rotate the eye and let it reconnect

22. What aspect of neural development do growth cones participate in?

axon path finding

23. What happens to the acetylcholine receptor on the muscle fiber when the spinal motor neuron establishes the end plate?

it aggregates at the end plate

24. In what way does apoptosis affect the number of spinal motor neurons?

more precursors than usually needed, and whether extras die depends on the number of muscles based on limb bud experiments

25. What happens to an isolated early stage dorsal root ganglion in the presence of nerve growth factor?

it sends out neurites

26. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophins 4 and 5 (NT-4/5). What is missing from this list of neurotrophins?

nerve growth factor

27. What happens to the ocular dominance columns in strabismic animals?

there is a loss of binocularly driven cells

28. Why is sensitization considered a simple form of "learning" rather than sensory adaptation or motor fatigue?

it occurs at a synapse

29. How is it that ubiquitin hydrolase can turn sensitization into a long term phenomenon?

by breaking down the regulatory unit, PKA activation lasts longer

30. "Dunce mutants of Drosophila have a 35% performance index while wild-type have a 90% value." How did Benzer and Quinn do their testing to isolate mutants and get these numbers?

train flies to avoid an odor by shocking them

31. What kind of "learning" occurs at the synapse between the CA3 pyramidal cell (with its Schaffer collateral) and the CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus?

long lasting potentiation

32. What two inputs to what cell (three answers there) need to be paired to demonstrate long term depression in the cerebellum?

climbing fiber and parallel fiber(granule cell) to Purkinje cell

33. A subject with a deficit in the "bisect the line" or "cancel the line" task likely has a lesion in what part of the brain?

parietal cortex

34. Why can't Sperry's subject with a severed corpus callosum say what (s)he sees in the left visual field?

it goes to the right cortex but speech is on the left

35. State one finding that indicates arousal during REM sleep.

eeg is like awake, respiration is up, heart rate is up, and erection is more likely

36. What transmitter mediates atonia during REM sleep at the level of the spinal motor neuron?


37. What is the most common zeitgeber in studies of entrainment of an endogenous circadian rhythm?

light dark cycle

38. How is the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic chain related to biological rhythms in humans?

it is on the pathway from the hypothalamus to the pineal

39. For EITHER (1) mammals OR (2) fruit flies, what alterative to rhodopsin is the pigment to entrain endogenous rhythms?

melanopsin, cryptochrome

40. Summarizing lesion experiments decades ago, "Therefore, the lateral hypothalamus is a hunger center." Why is this conclusion an oversimplification?

those lesions interrupted the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway with its control of affect

41. How do you prepare a rat, surgically, to show that electrical stimulation of the brain is rewarding, and what is the behavioral paradigm?

survival stereotaxic surgery, double electrode in hypothalamus on plug in head mount in a Skinner box where electrical stimulation is the reinforcement for bar press

42. Fornix, mammillothalamic tract, etc. What part of the cerebral cortex is considered important in the limbic system (Papez circuit) involved in emotion and emotional facial expression?

cingulate cortex

43. "Circulating testosterone is what makes 5 year old boys' behavior different from that of 5 year old girls." Support or contest that statement.

there is none, it is perinatal levels that had a permanent organizing effect

44. Where does estrogen bind in the rat brain?

lots of places, mostly hypothalamus

45. The victim was hit on the forehead with a baseball bat. Where is the contrecoup injury?

at the back of the brain

46. Pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater. Name ONE of the two other layers between the brain and bone.

subarachnoid space, cerebrospinal fluid

47. Name one of the hypotheses for contrecoup injury.

positive pressure, rotational shear stress, angular acceleration, CSF displacement, negative pressure (cavitation)

48. Where, other than testes, do androgens come from?

adrenal cortex

49. Five alpha redectase deficiency ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the syndrome? OR (2)What is the product if this enzyme is functioning well?

testes at twelve, dihydrotestosterone

50. What chromosome codes for the factor initiating dimorphism of sex organ development?


51. In his analysis of volume and number of neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, how did LeVay control for the fact that many of his samples of homosexual male brains came from donors who had died of AIDS?

he had groups of heterosexuals who had (and had not) died of AIDS

52. Why does smaller receptive field size on nipples of lactating rats (relative to non-lactating controls) make sense in terms of the greater cortical representation of the ventrum during lactation)?

greater sensory magnification (just like fingers vs arm)

53. What is the significance of the fact that Brenda Milner's famous subject, HM, with memory loss, can learn a mirror drawing task?

it requires a procedural (non-declarative) memory

54. A rat that learned which arm of a T-maze to go to has increased RNA in the hippocampus. Give one of the many reasons this finding is, with hindsight, meaningless.

control experiments showed it was not specific to the task, what kind of RNA? RNA must be involved in consolidation of long term memories, no need to show that

55. McConnell "showed" that Planaria fed the RNA of Planaria that had been trained possessed some of the results of the training. With hindsight, why was this nonsense?

that's not how RNA works, it is not like a tape recording, it works via central dogma, also, poor controls showed this was sensitization, not learning

56. "Engram" is still a word used in the history of neuroscience since Lashley's experiments. What is the engram?

the cortical representation of a memory

57. Why is the performance of a rat in Olton and Samuelson's radial 8-arm maze an example of "working" memory?

rat can remember which arms it has already visited

58. Earlier this semester, you learned that a cGMP-gated channel that, if mutated, led to congenital stationary night blindness mediated phototransduction in the vertebrate rod. What is the channel in the Drosophila visual receptor?


59. Earlier this semester, you learned that retinal pigment epithelial cells phagocytosed shed rod phototransductive membranes. Say something about how membrane is recycled in Drosophila photoreceptors.

autophagy of coated pits that merge to multivesicular bodies that are attacked by primary lysosomes

60. What is the dietary precursor of the chromophore of the rhodopsin of people and fruit flies?


61. Why can I see ultraviolet light while you cannot?

the lens blocks UV and I had cataract surgery

62. Why did "they" decide to put lutein into vitamin pills?

lutein is a component of macular pigments which protect foveal cones from damaging amounts of blue light

63. "If you put the position and momentum of every particle in the universe into a big computer, you should be able to predict all events." What scientific principle says this is not possible?

the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

64. According to Sperry, why MIGHT one think that "real mental freedom to act and choose is only an illusion?"

"materialistic science holds that a complete explanation of brain function is possible in purely objective physiological and biophysical terms."

65. According to Sperry, "atoms and electrons...are hauled and forced about...by the overall configurational properties of the whole molecule." How does this extrapolate to his explanation of free will?

at the highest level, "...molecular...forces and laws...have been superseded by the configurational forces" present in the brain

last updated 5/1/2015

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