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BL A512 -- Signal Transduction Fall -- 1996
Final Exam -- December 10, 1996 TOTAL POINT VALUE = 115
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1. For the average person, how many copies of genes coding for cone rhodopsins are on the X chromosome? (1 point)


2. An activated seven-transmembrane-domain receptor and the "son of sevenless" proteins each cause (a) what molecule to be ejected from (b-c) what molecules respectively? (3 points)


3. What are the G proteins (2) used to mediate bitter taste? (2 points)


4. Describe the molecule encoded by the Notch gene in terms of (a) its location, (b) its function at this location, (c) its structure, (d-f) its domains, and (g) an "upstream" molecule which interacts with it. Use a diagram if you want. (7 points).




5. Retinol is dehydrogenated to (a) what molecule which subserves (b) what function? If the molecule you named in "a" (above) is further dehydrogenated, (c) what molecule is formed and (d) what does that molecule do? (4 points)



6. Molecule - function matching (1 point each)

brassinosteroids a. vesicle release
tumor necrosis factor b. inactivate phosphorylated rhodopsin
a and a factors c. photomorphogenesis
rabphilin 3A d. calcium phototransduction channel
folic acid e. ligand for apoptosis pathway
ubiquitin f. prey detectiuon by slime molds
TRP g. mating specificity in yeasts
S-antigen (48kD protein) h. protein degradation

7. What molecule is known for its WD propellers? (1 point)


8. What molecular or genetic mechanism mediates the considerable variability of olfactory receptor molecules in the human? (1 point)


9. (a) Chemically, what kind of a molecule is 14-3-3 and (b) to what molecule does it bind? (2 points)


10. (a) What molecule is in low abundance in Parkinson's Disease and (b) where? (c) What precursor is given to ameliorate the symptoms and (d) why would anti-muscarinics be of use? (4 points)



11. What is the relationship between cyclophilin and rhodopsin? (1 point)


12. GAP (GTPase-activating protein) acts on what molecule? (1 point)


13. Myasthenia gravis affects (a) what specific receptor (b) at what cellular site because of an autoimmunity most commonly originating in (c) what body structure? (3 points)


14. Pathway -> downstream cascade step matching (1 point each)

wingless a. cGMP PDE
salicylic acid b. cubitus interruptus
Drosophila vision c. RAR - RXR dimer transcription factor
nuclear hormone d. interleukin 1-b converting enzyme
vertebrate phototransduction e. dishevelled
hedgehog f. catalase
apoptosis g. drk=downstream of receptor kinase
formation of R7 h. norpA PLC-b

15. Agrobacterium causes the overproduction of what two traditional hormone classes to cause overgrowth? (2 points)


16. After maternal genes have finished controlling early Drosophila development, but before homeotic genes take over, (a) what kind of genes function and (b, c, d) what three types function (list in order) (4 points)


17. (a) Chemically and (b) functionally, what kind of a molecule is erythropoietin? (c) In the adult, where is it made? (3 points)


18. In what way is the channel regulation in the olfactory receptor (a) similar to and (b) different from channel control in the vertebrate rod?



19. (a) What extracellular ligand is secreted in the anterior direction to mediate progression of the morphogenetic furrow and (b) what other signalling molecule is induced by this substance? What vetrebrate molecule is homologous to this latter? (3 points)


20. In Dictyostelium discoideum, thepdsA gene codes for a phosphodiesterase which performs (a) what reaction (b) where? (2 points)


21. What mediates the interaction of calcium and the guanylyl cyclase in the vertebrate rod? (1 point)


22. The T-DNA technique is based on (a) what component of (b) what organism and allows researchers to do (c) what? (3 points)



23. (a) What does "ERK" stand for and (b) what "alias" is quite frequently used instead of ERK? (2 points)



24. The A subunit of the toxin of Vibrio cholera adds (a) what chemical group to (b) what specific molecular component? That causes an increase in (c) what intracellular "second messenger" to affect (d) what channel? (e) To what molecule does the B subunit bind, and (f) where is this molecule? (6 points)

25. In yeast, the b-adrenergic receptor can be used to replace what molecule which is structurally related but not homologous? (1 point)


26. What is the function of the addition of a farnesyl group to the g subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein? (1 point)


27. Most forms of retinitis pigmentosa which affect the gene for rod rhodopsin do not lead to night blindness until life is well underway (teenageers or young adults). (a) Why (genetically) is this the case and (b) what does this say about the mutant gene product? (2 points)


28. "Disease" - defect matching (1 point each)

familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia a. b subunit of phosphodiesterase
sevenless b. receptor tyrosine kinase
aniridia c. erythropoietin
basal cell carcinoma d. G protein coupled receptor
whooping cough e. Gai
mouse rd=retinal dystrophy f. homology to steroid hydroxylase
antennapedia g. homologous to Drosophila eyeless
anemia h. homologue of Drosophila patched
Dwarf (tomato) i. homeotic gene

29. How much transducin is there in a rod relative to rhodopsin? (1 point)


30. (a) How big is a homeobox and (2) what kind of molecule is it on? (2 points)


31. What hedgehog domain is used for (a) long-range vs (b) short-range signalling? (2 points)


32. What type of molecule is the blue light receptor for phototropism? (1 point)


33. To what small molecule does vesicular Rab3A bind? (1 point)



34. (a) What molecule is the pheromone for aggergation in the slime mold and (b) what kind of molecule is its receptor? (2 points)


35. Why would DNA of apototic cells look like a ladder if run out on a gel? (1 point)


36. What is the difference between "lateral" and "inductive" specification in development? (2 points)


37. Describe the subunit structure of the phosphodiesterase in vertebrate rods. (1 point)


38. In what way is the ethylene receptor reminiscent of signalling in bacteria? (1 point)


39. What are the two states of phytochrome? (2 points)


40. (a) Chemically what kind of molecule is Raf and (b) what is it's component structure? (2 points)


41. (a) What molecule is the elongation factor EF-Tu most like and (b) what does it elongate? (2 points)


42. What do phorbol esters do? (1 point)


43. Diacylglydcerol kinase is the first step in the regeneration of what signalling precursor? (1 point)


44. Where is OBP (odorant binding protein) located? (1 point)





45. The "American" vs "European" plans are used to distinguish developmental mechanisms. (a) Which applies to the fly eye and (b) why? (2 points)


46. For what did Earl Sutherland win the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1971? (1 point)


47. What sorts of post-translational modifications are ther on the C-terminus of the 7 transmembrane domain receptor? (2 points)



48 Why is the ENOD (early nodulation) gene (for the peptide signal) really odd relative to the animal examples of peptide signalling) (1 point)

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