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BL A512 -- Signal Transduction Fall -- 1996
Midterm Exam -- October 15, 1996 -- Part I
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1. What Fig. 15-40 (left), p. 754 Alberts et al
(a) lighting conditions and
(b) gating conditions
keep the cell depolarized
as shown in this figure?
(2 points)



2. What Fig 15-6A, p. 725 Alberts et al.
(a) enzyme liberates
(b) what intermediate by
(c) what pathway to create
(d) what class of substances?
(4 points)




3. What Fig. 15-30, p. 746 Alberts et al.
(a) precursor is split by
(b) what enzyme to make
(c, d) what substances which do
(e, f)what?
(abbreviations will suffice)
(6 points)


4. What Fig. 4-55B, p. 182 Alberts et al.
(a) specific adaptation of
(b) what general technique is shown?
(c) How high
is the resistance
between membrane and tip?
(d) Name one of the 2 Nobel Prize
winners for developing (b).
(4 points)



5. (a) What is the name Fig. 10-10, 3rd, Alberts et al.
of this particular
phospholipid?
(b) What neurotransmitter
utilizes the same polar
head group as shown here?
(2 points)






6. (a) What type of ligand Fig. 15-47, 2nd, p. 760, Alberts et al
receptor (e.g. channel, etc)
is this?
(b) Name one of the ligands.
(2 points)



7. (a) What "presynaptic" channel is Fig. 11-34, left, p. 540, Alberts et al
necessary for vesicle release?
(b) What is this channel in the
vertebrate end plate?
(c) What does this channel release?
(3 points)



8. Compare (a) connexin, (b) the Shaker K+ channel, (c) the Electrophorus Na+ channel, and (d) the CFTR in terms of (I) number of membrane-spanning a-helices per molecule and (II) number of molecules per channel. (8 points)












9. What do monamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) do? (1 point)



10. (a) What does the insecticide malathion (and related nerve gasses) do at the chemical level? (b) How would a victim of poisoning by such an organophosphate die? (c) What Nobel laureate's pioneering research on "vagus stuff" relates to this physiological mechanism of death? (3 points)




11.What does botulism toxin do? (1 point)



12. What happens to what conductance during the IPSP of the spinal motorneuron? (2 points)




13. What is the natural neurotransmitter whose receptor is stimulated by the agonist NMDA? (1 point)




14. a-bungarotoxin binds irreversibly to what signalling molecule (1 point)





15. (a) What is the physical term (An I-V [I on y axis] curve is drawn)
for the slope of this line and
(b) what units does it come in?
(2 points)







16. "Disease" - channel matching (use each answer one time) (one point each)

long QT syndrome a. related to epithelial sodium channels
cystic fibrosis (ENaCs) sensitive to amiloride
peripheral nerve degeneration b. Ca2+-dependent K+ channel via CaM
C. elegans mechanosensory c. has ATP-binding and charged R domain
receptor degeneration d. autoimmunity to AChR
myasthenia gravis e. human ether-a-go-go related
diabetes insipitus f. connexin-32
Paramecium pantophobiac g. aquaporin



17. What does Duchenne muscular dystrophy have to do with the mechanogated channel? (1 point)



18. (a and b) Label the axes on this graph of the work from the Nobel Prize winners Hodgkin and Huxley. (c) What does the downward part of the curve represent? (d) What does the upward part of the curve represent? (4 points)

(I as a function of time is drawn here)

19. (a) In terms of amino acids, what is special about the S4 domain of the A-current channel? (b) What is this segment thought to mediate? (2 points)




20. (a) What kind of a library from sweat glands was used to clone the cystic fibrosis gene? (b) Why were sweat glands chosen? (c) What substance is conducted through this channel? (d) What neurotransmitter uses a channel conducting the same substance? (4 points)



21. (a) How big of a portion of (b) what molecule is a "response element" and (c) what kind of a receptor interacts with a response element? (3 points)


22. (a) What is a Pacinian corpuscle and (b) what are its special properties? (2 points)

********************************
Print your name neatly here->> * *
********************************
BL A512 -- Signal Transduction Fall -- 1996
Midterm Exam -- October 15, 1996 -- Part 2

1. Label the following components of the bacterial falgellum. (4 points)


Fig. 15-61, p. 774, Alberts et al.






2. Explain the adaptation response to chemotaxis in bacteria. (2 points)



3. A bacterial flagellum moves (a) in what direction? during a swim and (b) in what direction? during a tumble. (2 points)


4. What three components of signal processing in bacterial chemotaxis tend to be arranged in modules (3 points)




5. Adaptation relies on the methylation of which residues on the cytoplasmic face of the receptor? (1 point)


6. How could you experimentally determine whether a given chemical is a chemoattractant? (3 points)







7. What will happen if you deprive a bacterium of S-adenosylmethionine in a given concentration of attractant or repellant? (2 points)



8. Match the terms on the left with descriptions on the right. Each term will have two descriptions. Each is to be used only once. (12 points)

CheR (a) Its 15 kD N-terminal region is regulatory.
(b) has autophosphatase activity
CheW (c) methyltransferase
(d) methylesterase
CheZ (e) regulates autokinase activity of CheA
(f) not regulated
CheB (g) has histidine kinase activity
(h) phosphorylated by CheA
CheA (i) Two of these monomers bind one CheA dimer.
(j) heterodimer
CheY (k) dephosphorylates CheY
(l) forms multimers of 39 kD

9. How does the phosphotransferase sugar (PTS) system work in bacterial chemotaxis? A diagram might be helpful in describing this system. (5 points)

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