BL A512 -- Signal Transduction, Spring, 2002, Prof. Stark
Final exam -- Tuesday May 7, 2002, 100 points

1. Explain how RIP (regulated intracellular proteolysis) creates an analogy between the Notch pathway and Alzheimer's pathway. (2 points)

2. One of the "little-known-well-known" facts you have been exposed (subjected) to is that the glucocorticoid receptor is in the cytoplasm until glucocorticoids bind it. By contrast where do the other 50 members of this superfamily (in humans) start out? (1 point)

3. Molecules like the vitamin D receptor and the thyroid hormone receptor are thought to function by forming heterodimers with what molecule? (1 point)

4. Where is Fas ligand, and what happens if it activates its receptor? (2 points)

5. What activates gene transcription when Wnt binds to its receptor, and why doesn't it do that when the pathway is not activated? (2 points)

6. How does p53 function and what happens with regard to p53 and its regulation of apoptosis in cancer? (2 points)

7. Ethylene insensitive mutants are thought to affect a receptor that has what enzymatic activity? (1 point)

8. Why did G. Martin use "pass the butter" for her perspective about hedgehog? (1 point)

9. Receptor tyrosine kinases [RTKs] are, of course, very famous. Oddly, those same words [letters] are rearranged to "Trk." For what type of signalling that occurs where? (2 points)

10. What type of molecule is the EGF receptor? (1 point)

11. How can it be that a gene as fundamental as rhodopsin's can be mutated in many cases of retinitis pigmentosa (where people can still see, with their rods, for 1-2 decades)? (2 points)

12. What activates gene transcription when Hh binds to its receptor, and why doesn't it do that when the pathway is not activated? (2 points)

13. What happens in C. elegans if the ced-3 and ced-4 genes are mutated? (1 point)

14. If farnesyl transferase acted on a molecule in a signal transduction cascade, how would that molecule's location be altered? (1 point)

15. What does eNOS (endothelial nitric acid synthase) activity do to skeletal muscle? How does prior exercise (training) affect this? (1 point)

16. Since 2000, bitter and sweet receptors have been found. What type of molecules were they and what expedited the isolation? (2 points)

17. "Deadly agent orange" functioned by mimicing what molecule? (1 point)

18. What does a DNA ladder tell you? (1 point)

19. In a paper you were not assigned, molecules called Frzb's were discussed having the same cysteine rich domain as the extracellular portion of Frizzled. Use what you know about signalling pathways to state what pathway they would interfere with and to speculate as to how they would interfere. (2 points)

20. RXR and RAR are distinguished pharmacologically by what? (2 points)

21. How does ras compare with the heterotrimeric G protein in size and function of GAP and GNRP? (3 points)

22. What does 5 alpha reductase have to do with steroids in plants and animals? (2 points)

23. The oncogene Abl, relates to tyrosine kinase function of its proto-oncogene. When defective, what kind of cancer results? (1 point)

24. Describe the Notch molecule. (2 points)

25. What type of molecule is a receptor for a prostaglandin? (1 point)

26. Sometimes the genetic jargons "gain of function" and "loss of function" are applied to genes involved in cancer. What are the corresponding cancer jargons? (2 points)

27. After some confusion about two putative receptors for hedgehog, which was shown to be the receptor and how does it interact with the other? (2 points)

28. What is Drosophila dpp (decapentaplegic) related to (and thus where would you find it)? (2 points)

29. What is phytochrome a receptor for? (1 point)

30. How does the candidate gene approach work in finding causes of blindness? (2 points)

31. What do you call the process that is altered in diabetic retinopathy (and cancer) when new blood vessels form? (1 point)

32. One type of NOS is inducible. Inducible by what and located in what cell type? (2 points)

33. Suppose your metabolism had to start with beta-carotene. Recall from earlier this semester that beta-carotene is a dimer of vitamin A. How would your metabolism produce retinoic acid from this precursor? (2 points)

34. What advantage would confocal microscopy have in comparison with standard fluorescence microscopy? (1 point)

35. How come there's only one R7 cell when sevenless is expressed in many cells in each developing ommatidium? (1 point)

36. What is the general meaning of the term "orphan receptor?" (1 point)

37. What is mutated in basal cell nevus syndrome (carcinoma)? (1 point)

38. How do COX-1 and COX-2 differ in terms of regulation of expression? (2 points)

39. On B cells, what is that Y-shaped molecule that serves as an antigen receptor? (1 point)

40. How is it that visual transduction proteins in Drosophila happen to be near eachother (allowing efficiency and quick response, presumably)? (2 points)

41. What is the enzyme that releases arichidonic acid? (1 point)

42. What does p53 have to do with cell division? (1 point)

43. Plants specialize in what instead of receptor tyrosine kinases that animals use? (1 point)

44. Explain what a sequence like AGGTCA-(1 to 5 nucleotide space)-AGGTCA would suggest to you. (2 points)

45. The receptor tyrosine kinase pathway differs considerably from pathways like Notch, Hedgehog and Wingless with respect to the nuclear factors, according to Brivanlou and Darnell, 2002. How? (2 points)

46. Why did I put Robert Frost's "Fire and Ice" ("Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice") in your lecture outline? (1 point)

47. What signal molecule is associated with cadherin? (1 point)

48. What would Hedgehog do in the eye imaginal disk? (1 point)

49. Name the Notch ligands. (2 points)

50. What does MSG (monosodium glutamate) do and via what type of receptor? (2 points)

51. Where do you find the famous molecules CD4 and CD8, and what do they do there? (2 points)

52. What "type" (with reference to receptor type) of signalling uses SMADs and what are SMADs (2 points)

53. In Drosophila phototransduction, what is immediately downstream of rhodopsin, and what specific molecule, coded by the norpA (no receptor potential) gene is the next step? (2 points)

54. How many olfactory receptor molecules do people have? (1 point)

55. What seems so unusual about steroid receptors in plants (by contrast with those of animals)? (1 point)

56. How do prostaglandins get out of cells? (1 point)

57. What does cAMP do inside olfactory receptor cells to mediate excitation? (1 point)

58. MAPKs are used in a pathway that signals from where to where (the whole extent)? By contrast, how efficient (in terms of number of steps) is the JAK-STAT pathway? (3 points)

59. Suppose a researcher shows that someone who has age-related macular degeneration (AMD) also has a mutation in the same gene that causes Stargardt's disease. Why might a critic claim that that is not evidence that mutations in this gene cause AMD? (2 points)

60. What is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and what does it do? (2 points)

61. What residues of what (functional) molecule bind Zn in a Zn-finger so that this molecule can bind what other molecule? (3 points)

62. Where would you find the hedgehog molecule doing its job, and what is the precursor of this molecule? (2 points)

63. Blindness may be caused by mutations in "rim protien" (thought to be a retinal transporter related to CFTR) and in the cGMP gated channel. Compare the shapes and probable multimeric configurations of these molecules. (2 points)

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